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This article is about the country. For other uses, see France (disambiguation).
French Republic

République française
Flag National emblem
Motto: Liberté, égalité, fraternité (French)
“Liberty, Equality, Fraternity”
Anthem: La Marseillaise



Location of  metropolitan France  (dark green)– in Europe  (green & dark grey)– in the European Union  (green)

Location of  metropolitan France  (dark green)

– in Europe  (green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (green)

Territory of the French Republic in the world[note 1]

Territory of the French Republic in the world[note 1]
and largest city
Blason paris 75.svg Paris
48°51.4′N 2°21.05′E
Official languages French
[note 2]
Demonym French
Government Unitary semi-presidentialconstitutional republic
 –  President François Hollande
 –  Prime Minister Manuel Valls
Legislature Parliament
 –  Upper house Senate
 –  Lower house National Assembly
 –  Kingdom of France
(Treaty of Verdun)
August 843 
 –  French Republic
(National Convention)
22 September 1792 
 –  Current constitution
(Fifth Republic)
4 October 1958 
 –  Total[note 3] 640,679[1] km2 (42nd)
246,201 sq mi
 –  Metropolitan France
   – IGN[note 4] 551,695 km2 (50th)
213,010 sq mi
   – Cadastre[note 5] 543,965 km2 (50th)
210,026 sq mi
 –  Total[note 3] 66,616,416[2] (20th)
 –  Metropolitan France 63,929,000[2] (22nd)
 –  Density[note 6] 116/km2 (89th)
301/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate
 –  Total $2.587 trillion[3] (8th)
 –  Per capita $40,445[3] (26th)
GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate
 –  Total $2.902 trillion[3] (5th)
 –  Per capita $45,384[3] (18th)
Gini (2008) 32.7[4]
HDI (2013) Steady 0.884[5]
very high · 20th
Time zone CET[note 9] (UTC+1)
 –  Summer (DST) CEST[note 10] (UTC+2)
Date format dd/mm/yyyy
Drives on the right
Calling code +33[note 11]
ISO 3166 code FR
Internet TLD .fr[note 12]

France (Listeni/fræns/French[fʁɑ̃s] ( )), officially the French Republic (French: République française[ʁepyblik fʁɑ̃sɛz]), is a unitary sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.[note 13] Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channeland the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean; France covers 640,679 square kilometres (247,368 sq mi) and has a population of 66.6 million. It is a semi-presidential republic with its capital inParis, the nation’s largest city and the main cultural and commercial center. The Constitution of Franceestablishes the country as secular and democratic, with its sovereignty derived from the people.

During the Iron Age, what is now France was inhabited by the Gauls, a Celtic people. The Gauls were conquered by the Roman Empire in 51 BC, which held Gaul until 486. The Gallo-Romans faced raids and migration from theGermanic Franks, who dominated the region for hundreds of years, eventually creating the medieval Kingdom of France. France has been a major power in Europe since the Late Middle Ages, with its victory in the Hundred Years’ War (1337 to 1453) strengthening French State-building and paving the way for a future centralizedabsolute monarchy. During the Renaissance, France experienced a vast cultural development and established the first steps of a worldwide colonial empire. The 16th century was dominated by Religious Civil Wars primarily fought between Catholics and Protestants (Huguenots).

Louis XIV made France the dominant cultural, political and military power in Europe, but by the late 18th century, the monarchy was overthrown in the French Revolution. One legacy of the revolution was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, one of the world’s earliest documents on human rights, which expresses the nation’s ideals to this day. The country was governed as one of history’s earliest Republics, until theEmpire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte, who dominated European affairs and had a long-lasting impact on Western culture. Following his defeat, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments: an absolutemonarchy was restored, replaced in 1830 by a constitutional monarchy, then briefly by a Second Republic, and then by a Second Empire, until a more lasting French Third Republic was established in 1870.

France’s colonial empire reached the height of global prominence during the 19th and early 20th centuries, when it possessed the second-largest colonial empire in the world.[6] In World War I, France was one of the Triple Entente powers fighting against Germany and the Central Powers. France was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, but it was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established, but it was dissolved in the course of the Algerian War and replaced by the Charles de Gaulle-ledFrench Fifth Republic. Into the 1960s decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent. Throughout its long history, France has produced many influential artists, thinkers, and scientists, and remains a prominent global center of culture. It hosts the world’s fourth-largest number of cultural UNESCO World Heritage Sites and receives around 83 million foreign tourists annually – the most of any country in the world.[7]

France remains a great power with significant culturaleconomicmilitary, and political influence in Europe and around the world.[8] It is a developed country with the world’s fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP andeighth-largest by purchasing power parity.[9] In terms of total household wealth, France is the wealthiest nation in Europe and fourth in the world.[10] It also possesses the World’s second largest exclusive economic zone (EEZ), covering 11,035,000 square kilometres (4,261,000 sq mi).[11] French citizens enjoy a high standard of living, and the country performs well in international rankings of educationhealth carelife expectancy, civil liberties, and human development.[12][13] France is a founding member of the United Nations, where it serves as one of the five permanent members of the UN Security Council. It is a member of numerous international institutions, including the Group of 7North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie. France is a founding and leading member state of the EU.[14]


Main article: Name of France

The name “France” comes from the Latin Francia, which means “country of the Franks“.[15] Originally it applied to the whole Empire of the Franks. Modern France is still named today Francia in Italian or Spanish languages and Frankreich in German language (Frankrijk in Dutch), meaning “Frank Reich“, the Realm of the Franks.

There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm,[16] the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank (free) in English.[17] It has been suggested that the meaning of “free” was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.[18] An other theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca.[19] It seems that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, and not the other way around.[20]


Main article: History of France


Main article: Prehistory of France

One of the Lascaux paintings of which depicts a horse (Dordogne, approximately 18,000 BC).

The oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from approximately 1.8 million years ago.[21] Humans were then confronted by a hard and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras, which led them to a nomadic hunter-gathererlife.[21] France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Paleolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved: Lascaux[21] (approximately 18,000 BC).

At the end of the last glacial period (10,000 BC), the climate softened[21] and from approximately 7,000 BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium, initially working gold,copper and bronze, and later iron.[22] France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptionally dense Carnac stones site (approximately 3,300 BC).


Main articles: GaulCelts and Roman Gaul

In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks, originating from Phocaea, founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille), on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. This makes it France’s oldest city.[23][24] At the same time, some Gallic Celtic tribes penetrated parts of the current territory of France, and this occupation spread to the rest of France between the 5th and 3rd century BC.[25]

The Maison Carrée was a temple of the Gallo-Roman city of Nemausus (present-day Nîmes) and is one of the best preserved vestiges of the Roman Empire.

The concept of Gaul emerged at that time; it corresponds to the territories of Celtic settlement ranging between the Rhine, the Atlantic Ocean, the Pyrenees and the Mediterranean. The borders of modern France are roughly the same as those of ancient Gaul, which was inhabited by Celtic Gauls. Gaul was then a prosperous country, of which the southernmost part was heavily subject to Greek and Roman influences.

Around 390 BC the Gallic chieftain Brennus and his troops made their way to Italy through the Alps, defeated the Romans in the Battle of the Allia, and besieged and ransomed Rome. The Gallic invasion left Rome weakened and the Gauls continued to harass the region until 345 BC, when they entered into a formal peace treaty with Rome. But the Romans and the Gauls would maintain an adversarial relationship for the next several centuries and the Gauls would remain a threat in Italia.

Around 125 BC, the south of Gaul was conquered by the Romans, who called this region Provincia Nostra (“Our Province”), which over time evolved into the name Provence in French.[26] Julius Caesar conquered the remainder of Gaul and overcame a revolt carried out by the Gallic chieftain Vercingetorix in 52 BC.[27] Gaul was divided by Augustus into Roman provinces.[28]Many cities were founded during the Gallo-Roman period, including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon), which is considered to be the capital of the Gauls.[28] These cities were built in traditional Roman style, with a forum, a theatre, a circus, an amphitheatre and thermal baths. The Gauls mixed with Roman settlers and eventually adopted Roman culture and Roman speech (Latin, from which the French language evolved). The Roman polytheism merged with the Gallic paganism into the same syncretism.

From the 250s to the 280s AD, Roman Gaul suffered a serious crisis with its fortified borders protecting the Empire being attacked on several occasions bybarbarians.[29] Nevertheless, the situation improved in the first half of the 4th century, which was a period of revival and prosperity for Roman Gaul.[30] In 312, the emperor Constantin I converted to Christianity. Christians, persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire.[31] But, from the beginning of the 5th century, the Barbarian Invasions resumed,[32] and Germanic tribes, such as the VandalsSuebi and Alans crossed the Rhine and settled in Gaul, Spain and other parts of the collapsing Roman Empire.[33]

Early Middle Ages

Frankish expansion from 481 to 843/870.

At the end of the Antiquity period, ancient Gaul was divided into several Germanic kingdoms and a remaining Gallo-Roman territory, known as the Kingdom of Syagrius. Simultaneously, Celtic Britons, fleeing the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, settled the western part of Armorica. As a result, the Armorican peninsula was renamed BrittanyCeltic culture was revived and independent petty kingdoms arose in this region.

With Clovis‘ conversion to Catholicism in 498, theFrankish monarchy,elective and secular until then, became hereditaryand of divine right.

The pagan Franks, from whom the ancient name of “Francie” was derived, originally settled the north part of Gaul, but under Clovis I conquered most of the other kingdoms in northern and central Gaul. In 498, Clovis I was the first Germanic conqueror after the fall of the Roman Empire to convert to Catholic Christianity, rather than Arianism; thus France was given the title “Eldest daughter of the Church” (FrenchLa fille aînée de l’Église) by the papacy,[34]and French kings would be called “the Most Christian Kings of France” (Rex Christianissimus).

The Franks embraced the Christian Gallo-Roman culture and ancient Gaul was eventually renamed Francia (“Land of the Franks”). The Germanic Franks adopted Romanic languages, except in northern Gaul where Roman settlements were less dense and where Germanic languages emerged. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian dynasty, but his kingdom would not survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged from Clovis’s: Paris, OrléansSoissons, and Rheims. The last Merovingian kings lost power to their mayors of the palace (head of household). One mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, defeated an Islamic invasion of Gaul at the Battle of Tours (732) and earned respect and power within the Frankish kingdoms. His son, Pepin the Short, seized the crown of Francia from the weakened Merovingians and founded the Carolingian dynasty. Pepin’s son, Charlemagne, reunited the Frankish kingdoms and built a vast empire across Westernand Central Europe.

Proclaimed Holy Roman Emperor by Pope Leo III and thus establishing in earnest the French government’s longtime historical association with the Catholic Church,[35] Charlemagne tried to revive the Western Roman Empire and its cultural grandeur. Charlemagne’s son, Louis I (emperor 814–840), kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive his death. In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis’ three sons, with East Francia going to Louis the GermanMiddle Francia to Lothair I, and West Francia to Charles the Bald. West Francia approximated the area occupied by, and was the precursor, to modern France.[36]

During the 9th and 10th centuries, continually threatened by Viking invasions, France became a very decentralised state: the nobility’s titles and lands became hereditary, and the authority of the king became more religious than secular and thus was less effective and constantly challenged by powerful noblemen. Thus was established feudalism in France. Over time, some of the king’s vassals would grow so powerful that they often posed a threat to the king. For example, after the Battle of Hastings in 1066, William the Conqueror added “King of England” to his titles, becoming both the vassal to (as Duke of Normandy) and the equal of (as king of England) the king of France, creating recurring tensions.

High Middle Ages

Joan of Arc led the French army to several important victories during the Hundred Years’ War, which paved the way for the final victory.

French territorial evolution from 985 to 1947

The Carolingian dynasty ruled France until 987, when Hugh Capet, Duke of France and Count of Paris, was crowned King of the Franks.[37] His descendants – the Capetians, the House of Valois, and the House of Bourbon – progressively unified the country through wars and dynastic inheritance into the Kingdom of France, which was fully declared in 1190 by Philip II Augustus. The French kings played a prominent role in most Crusades in order to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. French knights made up the bulk of the steady flow of reinforcements throughout the two-hundred-year span of the Crusades. French knights also comprised the majority in both the Hospital and the Temple orders. The later, in particular, held numerous properties throughout France and by the 13th century was the principal bankers for the French crown, until Philip IV annihilated the order in 1307. The Albigensian Crusadewas launched in 1209 to eliminate the heretical Cathars in the south-western area of modern-day France. In the end, the Cathars were exterminated and the autonomous County of Toulouse was annexed into the kingdom of France.[38] Later Kings expanded their domain to cover over half of modern continental France, including most of the North, Centre and West of France. Meanwhile, the royal authority became more and more assertive, centred on a hierarchically conceived society distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners.

Charles IV the Fair died without an heir in 1328.[39] Under the rules of the Salic law the crown of France could not pass to a woman nor could the line of kingship pass through the female line.[39] Accordingly, the crown passed to Philip of Valois, a cousin of Charles, rather than through the female line to Charles’ nephew, Edward, who would soon become Edward III of England. During the reign of Philip of Valois, the French monarchy reached the height of its medieval power.[39] Philip’s seat on the throne was contested by Edward III of England and in 1337, on the eve of the first wave of the Black Death,[40] England and France went to war in what would become known as the Hundred Years’ War.[41] The exact boundaries changed greatly with time, but French landholdings of the English Kings remained extensive for decades. With charismatic leaders, such as Joan of Arc and La Hire, strong French counterattacks won back English continental territories. Like the rest of Europe, France was struck by the Black Death; half of the 17 million population of France died.[42][43]

Early modern period

The St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre (1572) was the climax of the French Wars of Religion, which were brought to an end by theEdict of Nantes (1598).

The French Renaissance saw a spectacular cultural development and the first standardization of the French language, which would become the official language of France and the language of Europe’s aristocracy. It also saw a long set of wars, known as the Italian Wars, between the Kingdom of France and the powerful Holy Roman Empire. French explorers, such as Jacques Cartieror Samuel de Champlain, claimed lands in the Americas for France, paving the way for the expansion of the First French colonial empire. The rise of Protestantism in Europe led France to a civil war known as the French Wars of Religion, where, in the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre of 1572.[44] The Wars of Religion were ended by Henry IV‘s Edict of Nantes, which granted some freedom of religion to the Huguenots.

Under Louis XIII, the energetic Cardinal Richelieu reinforced the centralization of the state, royal power and French dominance in Europe, foreshadowing the reign of Louis XIV. During Louis XIV’s minority and the regency of Queen Anne andCardinal Mazarin, a period of trouble known as the Fronde occurred in France, which was at that time at war with Spain. This rebellion was driven by the great feudal lords and sovereign courts as a reaction to the rise of royal power in France.

Louis XIV, the “sun king” was the absolute monarch of France and made France the leading European power.

The monarchy reached its peak during the 17th century and the reign of Louis XIV. By turning powerful feudal lords into courtiers at the Palace of Versailles, Louis XIV’s personal power became unchallenged. Remembered for his numerous wars, he made France the leading European power. France became the most populous country in Europe and had tremendous influence over European politics, economy, and culture. French became the most-used language in diplomacy, science, literature and international affairs, and remained so until the 20th century.[45] France obtained many overseas possessions in the Americas, Africa and Asia. Louis XIV also revoked the Edict of Nantes, forcing thousands of Huguenots into exile.

Under Louis XV, Louis XIV’s grandson, France lost New France and most of its Indian possessions after its defeat in the Seven Years’ War, which ended in 1763. Its European territory kept growing, however, with notable acquisitions such as Lorraine (1766) andCorsica (1770). An unpopular king, Louis XV’s weak rule, his ill-advised financial, political and military decisions – as well as the debauchery of his court– discredited the monarchy and arguably led to the French Revolution 15 years after his death.[46][47]

Louis XVI, Louis XV’s grandson, actively supported the Americans, who were seeking their independence from Great Britain (realized in the Treaty of Paris (1783)). The example of the American Revolution and the financial crisis that followed France’s involvement in it were two of many contributing factors to the French Revolution. Much of the Enlightenment occurred in French intellectual circles, and major scientific breakthroughs and inventions, such as the discovery of oxygen (1778) and the first hot air balloon carrying passengers (1783), were achieved by French scientists. French explorers, such as Bougainville and Lapérouse, took part in the voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around the globe. The Enlightenment philosophy, in which reasonis advocated as the primary source for legitimacy and authority, undermined the power of and support for the monarchy and helped pave the way for the French Revolution.

Modern period

The Storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789 was the starting event of the French Revolution.

Facing financial troubles, Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General (gathering the three Estates of the realm) in May 1789 to propose solutions to his government. As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into aNational Assembly, signaling the outbreak of the French Revolution. Fearing that the king would suppress the newly created National Assembly, insurgents stormed the Bastille on 14 July 1789, a date which would become France’s National Day.

The absolute monarchy was subsequently replaced by a constitutional monarchy. Through the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, France established fundamental rights for men. The Declaration affirms “the natural and imprescriptible rights of man” to “liberty, property, security and resistance to oppression”. Freedom of speech and press were declared, and arbitrary arrests outlawed. It called for the destruction of aristocratic privileges and proclaimed freedom and equal rights for all men, as well as access to public office based on talent rather than birth. While Louis XVI, as a constitutional king, enjoyed popularity among the population, his disastrous flight to Varennes seemed to justify rumours he had tied his hopes of political salvation to the prospects of foreign invasion. His credibility was so deeply undermined that theabolition of the monarchy and establishment of a republic became an increasing possibility.

European monarchies gathered against the new régime, to restore the French absolute monarchy. The foreign threat exacerbated France’s political turmoil and deepened the sense of urgency among the various factions and war was declared against Austria on 20 April 1792. Mob violence occurred during the insurrection of 10 August 1792[48] and the following month.[49] As a result of this violence and the political instability of the constitutional monarchy, the Republic was proclaimed on 22 September 1792.

NapoleonEmperor of the French, and his Grande Armée built a vast Empire across Europe. He helped spread the French revolutionary ideals and his legal reforms had a major influence worldwide.

Louis XVI was convicted of treason and guillotined in 1793. Facing increasing pressure from European monarchies, internal guerrilla wars and counterrevolutions (such as the War in the Vendée or the Chouannerie), the young Republic fell into theReign of Terror. Between 1793 and 1794, between 16,000 and 40,000 people were executed. In Western France, the civil war between the Bleus (“Blues”, supporters of the Revolution) and the Blancs (“Whites”, supporters of the Monarchy) lasted from 1793 to 1796 and led to the loss of between 200,000 and 450,000 lives.[50][51] Both foreign armies and French counterrevolutionnaries were crushed and the French Republic survived. Furthermore, it extended greatly its boundaries and established “Sister Republics” in the surrounding countries. As the threat of a foreign invasion receded and France became mostly pacified, the Thermidorian Reaction put an end to Robespierre‘s rule and to the Terror. The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrage, enacted during this radical phase of the revolution, were cancelled by subsequent governments.

After a short-lived governmental schemeNapoleon Bonaparte seized control of the Republic in 1799 becoming First Consul and later Emperor of the French Empire (1804–1814/1815). As a continuation of the wars sparked by the European monarchies against the French Republic, changing sets of European Coalitions declared wars on Napoleon’s Empire. His armies conquered most of continental Europe, while members of the Bonaparte family were appointed as monarchs in some of the newly established kingdoms.[52] These victories led to the worldwide expansion of French revolutionary ideals and reforms, such as the Metric system, the Napoleonic Code and the Declaration of the Rights of Man. After the catastrophic Russian campaign, and the ensuing uprising of European monarchies against his rule, Napoleon was defeated and the Bourbon monarchy restored. About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars.[52]

Animated map of the growth and decline of the French colonial empire.

After his brief return from exile, Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, the monarchy was re-established (1815–1830), with new constitutional limitations. The discredited Bourbon dynasty was overthrown by the July Revolution of 1830, which established the constitutional July Monarchy, which lasted until 1848, when the French Second Republic was proclaimed, in the wake of the European Revolutions of 1848. The abolition of slavery and male universal suffrage, both briefly enacted during the French Revolution were re-enacted in 1848. In 1852, the president of the French RepublicLouis-Napoléon Bonaparte, Napoleon I’s nephew, was proclaimed emperor of the second Empire, as Napoleon III. He multiplied French interventions abroad, especially in Crimea, in Mexico and Italy. Napoleon III was unseated following defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and his regime was replaced by the Third Republic. France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire. Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometres in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world’s land. In 1905, state secularism was officially established.

Contemporary period

French poilus sustained the highest number of casualties among the Allies in World War I.

France was a member of the Triple Entente when World War I broke out. A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers, at a tremendous human and material cost. World War I left 1.4 million French soldiers dead, 4% of its population,[53] between 27 and 30% of the conscript classes of 1912–1915.[54] The interbellum years were marked by intense international tensions and a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government (Annual leaveworking time reduction, women in Government among others).

Charles de Gaulle took an active part in many major events of the 20th century: a hero of World War I, leader of the Free French during World War II, he then becamePresident, where he facilitated decolonization, maintained France as a major power and overcame the revolt of May 1968.

In 1940 France was invaded and occupied by Nazi Germany. Metropolitan France was divided into aGerman occupation zone in the north and Vichy France, a newly established authoritarian regime collaborating with Germany, in the south, while Free France, the government-in-exile led byCharles de Gaulle, was set up in London.[55] From 1942 to 1944, about 160,000 French citizens, including around 75,000 Jews,[56][57][58] were deported to death camps and concentration camps in Germany and Poland.[59] On 6 June 1944 the Allies invaded Normandy and in August they invaded Provence. Over the following year the Allies and the French Resistance emerged victorious over the Axis powers and French sovereignty was restored with the establishment of the Provisional Government of the French Republic (GPRF). This interim government, established by de Gaulle, aimed to continue to wage war against Germany and to purge collaborators from office. It also made several important reforms (suffrage extended to women, creation of the Social security, founding of the École nationale d’administration).

The GPRF prepared the ground for a new constitutional order that resulted in the Fourth Republic, which saw spectacular economic growth (les Trente Glorieuses). France was one of the founding members of NATO (1949). France attempted to regain control of French Indochina but was defeated by the Viet Minh in 1954 at the climactic Battle of Dien Bien Phu. Only months later, France faced another anti-colonialist conflict in AlgeriaTorture and illegal executions were perpetrated by both sides and the debate over whether or not to keep control of Algeria, then home to over one million European settlers,[60] wracked the country and nearly led to a coup and civil war.[61]

In 1958, the weak and unstable Fourth Republic gave way to the Fifth Republic, which contained a strengthened Presidency.[62] In the latter role, Charles de Gaulle managed to keep the country together while taking steps to end the war. The Algerian War was concluded with the Évian Accords in 1962 that led to Algerian independence. France granted independence progressively to its colonies. A vestige of the colonial empire are the French overseas departments and territories.

In the context of the Cold War, de Gaulle pursued a policy of “national independence” towards the Western and Eastern blocs. To this end, he withdrew from NATO‘s military integrated command, he launched a nuclear development program and made France the fourth nuclear power. He restored cordial Franco-German relations in order to create a European counterweight between the American and Soviet spheres of influence. However, he opposed any development of a supranational Europe, favouring a Europe of sovereign Nations. In the wake of the series of worldwide protests of 1968, the revolt of May 1968 had an enormous social impact. In France, it is considered to be the watershed moment when a conservative moral ideal (religion, patriotism, respect for authority) shifted towards a more liberal moral ideal (secularismindividualismsexual revolution). Although the revolt was a political failure, as the Gaullist party emerged even stronger than before, it announced a split between the French and de Gaulle who resigned shortly after.

In the post-Gaullist era, France remained one of the most developed economy in the World, but faced several economic crises that resulted in high unemployment rate and increasing public debt. Lately, France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union, notably by adopting the Euro currency.[63] France has also gradually but fully reintegrated NATO and has participated since then in most of NATO sponsored wars[64]

France received many immigrants since the 19th century to support its economic growth, they were mostly male foreign workerswho generally returned home when not employed. During the 1970s, France simultaneously faced economic crisis and allowed immigrants (mostly from Muslim World) to permanently settle in France with their families and to acquire French citizenship. It resulted in hundreds of thousands of Muslims, especially to the larger cities, living in subsidized public housing and suffering from very high unemployment rates.[65] It led to tensions and civil unrest between local population and radicalized newcomers, which eventually peaked with the 2015 Île-de-France attacks which in turn provoked the largest public rallies in French history, gathering 4.4 millions people.[66][67]


Main article: Geography of France

A relief map of Metropolitan France, showing cities with over 100,000 inhabitants.

France has the World’s second largest territorial waters.

Metropolitan France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to theAtlantic Ocean; due to its shape, it is often referred to in French as l’Hexagone (“The Hexagon“). France is one of only three countries (with Morocco and Spain) to have both Atlantic and Mediterranean coastlines. Metropolitan France is situated mostly between latitudes 41° and 51° N, and longitudes 6° W and 10° E, on the western edge of Europe, and thus lies within the northern temperate zone.

From northeast to southwest, Metropolitan France shares borders with BelgiumLuxembourgGermanySwitzerlandItaly,MonacoSpain and Andorra. France also borders Suriname to its west and Brazil to its east and south, by way of the overseas region of French Guiana, which is considered an integral part of the Republic.[68] France also shares a border with theKingdom of the Netherlands, through the Caribbean island of Saint Martin.

The territory of the French Republic consists of

The European territory of France covers 547,030 square kilometres (211,209 sq mi),[68] the largest among European Unionmembers.[14] France’s total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land), is 674,843 km2(260,558 sq mi), 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. France possesses a wide variety of landscapes, from coastal plains in the north and west to mountain ranges of the Alps in the south-east, the Massif Central in the south-central and Pyreneesin the south-west.

Due to its numerous Overseas departments and territories scattered on all oceans of the planet, France possesses the second-largest Exclusive economic zone(EEZ) in the world, covering 11,035,000 km2 (4,260,000 mi2), just behind the EEZ of the United States (11,351,000 km2 / 4,383,000 mi2), but ahead of the EEZ of Australia (8,148,250 km2 / 4,111,312 mi2). Its EEZ is covering approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world.

At 4,810.45 metres (15,782 ft)[69] above sea level, the highest point in Western Europe, Mont Blanc, is situated in the Alps on the border between France and Italy. France also has extensive river systems such as the Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, and the Rhone, which divides the Massif Central from the Alps and flows into the Mediterranean Sea at the Camargue. Corsica lies off the Mediterranean coast.


Climates of France: Oceanic (light green); semi-continental (dark green); mediterranean (yellow and light orange); mountain (blue and white); tropical (dark orange and red); and equatorial (purple).

Metropolitan France has four broad climate zones:

Except in the south which is generally dry, rain is evenly dispersed throughout the year.

In the Overseas regions, there is three broad types of climate:


Regional (green) and National (red) natural parks in France

Limestone cliffs of Normandynear Étretat, on the English Channel.

France was one of the first countries to create an environment ministry, in 1971.[70] Although it is one of the most industrialised countries in the world, France is ranked only 17th by carbon dioxide emissions, behind less populous nations such as Canada or Australia. This is due to France’s decision to invest in nuclear power following the 1973 oil crisis,[71]which now accounts for 75% of its electricity production[72] and results in less pollution.[73][74]

Like all European Union members, France agreed to cut carbon emissions by at least 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2020,[75]compared to the U.S. plan to reduce emissions by 4% of 1990 levels.[76] As of 2009, French carbon dioxide emissions per capita were lower than that of China’s.[77] The country was set to impose a carbon tax in 2009 at 17 Euros per tonne of carbon emitted,[78] which would have raised 4 billion Euros of revenue annually.[79] However, the plan was abandoned due to fears of burdening French businesses.[80]

Forests account for 28% of France’s land area,[81][82] and are some of the most diverse in Europe, comprising more than 140 species of trees.[83] There are nine national parks[84] and 46 natural parks in France,[85] with the government planning to convert 20% of its Exclusive Economic Zone into a Marine Protected Area by 2020.[86] A regional nature park[87] (Frenchparc naturel régional or PNR) is a public establishment in France between local authorities and the French national governmentcovering an inhabited rural area of outstanding beauty, in order to protect the scenery and heritage as well as setting up sustainable economic development in the area.[88] A PNR sets goals and guidelines for managed human habitation, sustainable economic development, and protection of the natural environment based on each park’s unique landscape and heritage. The parks also foster ecological research programs and public education in the natural sciences.[89] As of 2014 there are 49 PNRs in France.

According to the 2012 Environmental Performance Index conducted by Yale and Columbia, France was the sixth-most environmentally conscious country in the world, one place higher than the previous report in 2010.[90][91]

Administrative divisions

The 22 regions and 96departments of metropolitan France includes Corsica (Corse, lower right). Paris area is expanded (inset at left)

France is divided into 27 administrative regions: 22 regions in metropolitan France (including the territorial collectivity of Corsica), and five located overseas.[68] The regions are further subdivided into 101 departments,[92] which are numbered mainly alphabetically. This number is used in postal codes and vehicle number plates among others. Among the 101 departments of France, five (French GuianaGuadeloupeMartiniqueMayotte, and Réunion) are in overseas regions (ROMs) that are also simultaneously overseas departments (DOMs) and are an integral part of France (and the European Union) and thus enjoy exactly the same status as metropolitan departments.

The 101 departments are subdivided into 341 arrondissements, which are, in turn, subdivided into 4,051 cantons. These cantons are then divided into 36,697 communes, which are municipalities with an elected municipal council. There are 2,588intercommunal entities grouping 33,414 of the 36,697 communes (i.e. 91.1% of all the communes). Three communes, Paris, Lyon and Marseille are subdivided into 45 municipal arrondissements.

The regions, departments and communes are all known as territorial collectivities, meaning they possess local assemblies as well as an executive. Arrondissements and cantons are merely administrative divisions. However, this was not always the case. Until 1940, the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946.

Overseas territories and collectivities

In addition to the 27 regions and 101 departments, the French Republic has five overseas collectivities (French PolynesiaSaint BarthélemySaint MartinSaint Pierre and Miquelon, and Wallis and Futuna), one sui generis collectivity (New Caledonia), one overseas territory (French Southern and Antarctic Lands), and one island possession in the Pacific Ocean (Clipperton Island).

The lands making up the French Republic, shown at the samegeographic scale.

Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area (with the exception of St. Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in 2007). The Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia, Wallis and Fortuna, and New Caledonia continue to use the CFP franc[93] whose value is strictly linked to that of the euro. In contrast, the five overseas regions used the French franc and now use the euro.[94]

Name Constitutional status Capital
 Clipperton Island State private property under the direct authority of the French government Uninhabited
 French Polynesia Designated as an overseas land (pays d’outre-mer or POM), the status is the same as an overseas collectivity. Papeete
 French Southern and Antarctic Lands Overseas territory (territoire d’outre-mer or TOM) Port-aux-Français
 New Caledonia Sui generis collectivity Nouméa
 Saint Barthélemy Overseas collectivity (collectivité d’outre-mer or COM) Gustavia
 Saint Martin Overseas collectivity (collectivité d’outre-mer or COM) Marigot
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Overseas collectivity (collectivité d’outre-mer or COM). Still referred to as acollectivité territoriale. Saint-Pierre
 Wallis and Futuna Overseas collectivity (collectivité d’outre-mer or COM). Still referred to as aterritoire. Mata-Utu


Main article: Politics of France


The French Republic is a unitary semi-presidential republic with strong democratic traditions.[95] The constitution of the Fifth Republic was approved by referendum on 28 September 1958.[96] It greatly strengthened the authority of the executive in relation to parliament. The executive branch itself has two leaders: the President of the Republic, currently François Hollande, who is head of state and is elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years),[97] and the Government, led by the president-appointed Prime Minister, currently Manuel Valls.

The French parliament is a bicameral legislature comprising a National Assembly (Assemblée Nationale) and a Senate.[98] The National Assembly deputies represent local constituencies and are directly elected for 5-year terms.[99] The Assembly has the power to dismiss the government, and thus the majority in the Assembly determines the choice of government. Senators are chosen by an electoral college for 6-year terms (originally 9-year terms), and one half of the seats are submitted to election every 3 years starting in September 2008.[100]

The Senate’s legislative powers are limited; in the event of disagreement between the two chambers, the National Assembly has the final say.[101] The government has a strong influence in shaping the agenda of Parliament.

French politics are characterised by two politically opposed groupings: one left-wing, centred on the French Socialist Party, and the other right-wing, centred previously around the Rassemblement pour la République (RPR) and now its successor the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP).[102] Since the 2012 elections, the executive branch is currently composed mostly of the Socialist Party.


Main article: Law of France

France uses a civil legal system;[68] that is, law arises primarily from written statutes; judges are not to make law, but merely to interpret it (though the amount of judicial interpretation in certain areas makes it equivalent to case law). Basic principles of the rule of law were laid in the Napoleonic Code (which was, in turn, largely based on the royal law codified under Louis XIV). In agreement with the principles of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, law should only prohibit actions detrimental to society. As Guy Canivet, first president of the Court of Cassation, wrote about the management of prisons: Freedom is the rule, and its restriction is the exception; any restriction of Freedom must be provided for by Law and must follow the principles of necessity and proportionality. That is, Law should lay out prohibitions only if they are needed, and if the inconveniences caused by this restriction do not exceed the inconveniences that the prohibition is supposed to remedy.

The basic principles that the French Republic must respect are found in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

French law is divided into two principal areas: private law and public law. Private law includes, in particular, civil law andcriminal law. Public law includes, in particular, administrative law and constitutional law. However, in practical terms, French law comprises three principal areas of law: civil law, criminal law, and administrative law. Criminal laws can only address the future and not the past (criminal ex post facto laws are prohibited). While administrative law is often a subcategory of civil law in many countries, it is completely separated in France and each body of law is headed by a specific supreme court: ordinary courts (which handle criminal and civil litigation) are headed by the Court of Cassation and administrative courts are headed by the Council of State.

To be applicable, every law must be officially published in the Journal officiel de la République française.

France does not recognize religious law as a motivation for the enactment of prohibitions. France has long had neither blasphemylaws nor sodomy laws (the latter being abolished in 1791). However, “offenses against public decency” (contraires aux bonnes mœurs) or disturbing public order (trouble à l’ordre public) have been used to repress public expressions of homosexuality or street prostitution. Since 1999, civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since May 2013, same-sex marriage and LGBT adoptionare legal in France.[103] Laws prohibiting discriminatory speech in the press are as old as 1881. Some consider however that hate speech laws in France are too broad or severe and damage freedom of speech.[104] France has laws against racism andantisemitism.[105] Since 1990, the Gayssot Act prohibits Holocaust denial.

France’s attitude towards freedom of religion is complex. Freedom of religion is guaranteed by the constitutional rights set forth in the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. However, since the 1905 French law on the Separation of the Churches and the State, the State tries to prevent its policy-making from being influenced by religion and became suspicious in recent decades towards new religious tendencies of the French society: the Parliament has listed many religious movements as dangerous cults since 1995, and has banned wearing conspicuous religious symbols in schools since 2004. In 2010, it banned the wearing of face-covering Islamic veils in public. As some have complained that they have suffered from discrimination thus, and after criticism by human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch,[106][107] these laws remain controversial, although they are supported by most of the population.[108]

Foreign relations

French President François Mitterrand and German ChancellorHelmut Kohl, in 1987.

France is a member of the United Nations and serves as one of the permanent members of the UN Security Council with veto rights.[109] It is also a member of the G8World Trade Organization (WTO),[110] the Secretariat of the Pacific Community(SPC)[111] and the Indian Ocean Commission (COI).[112] It is an associate member of the Association of Caribbean States(ACS)[113] and a leading member of the International Francophone Organisation (OIF) of fifty-one fully or partly French-speaking countries.[114]

As a significant hub for international relations, France hosts the second largest assembly of diplomatic missions in the world and the headquarters of international organizations including the OECDUNESCOInterpol, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures, and la Francophonie.[115]

Postwar French foreign policy has been largely shaped by membership of the European Union, of which it was a founding member. Since the 1960s, France has developed close ties with reunified Germany to become the most influential driving force of the EU.[116] In the 1960s, France sought to exclude the British from the European unification process,[117] seeking to build its own standing in continental Europe. However, since 1904, France has maintained an “Entente cordiale” with the United Kingdom, and there has been a strengthening of links between the countries, especially militarily.

France is a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), but under President de Gaulle, it excluded itself from the joint military command to protest the special relationship between the United States and Britain and to preserve the independence of French foreign and security policies.[118] France vigorously opposed the 2003 invasion of Iraq,[119][120] straining bilateral relations with the US[121][122] and the UK.[123] However, as a result of Nicolas Sarkozy’s pro-American politics (much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right),[124][125] France rejoined the NATO joint military command on 4 April 2009.

In the early 1990s, the country drew considerable criticism from other nations for its underground nuclear tests in French Polynesia.[126]

France retains strong political and economic influence in its former African colonies (Françafrique)[127] and has supplied economic aid and troops for peace-keeping missions in Ivory Coast and Chad.[128] Recently, after the unilateral declaration of independence of northern Mali by the Tuareg MNLA and the subsequent regional Northern Mali conflict with several Islamist groups including Ansar Dine and MOJWA, France and other African states intervened to help the Malian Army to retake control.

In 2009, France was the second largest (in absolute numbers) donor of development aid in the world, behind the US, and ahead of Germany, Japan and the UK.[129]This represents 0.5% of its GDP, in this regard rating France as tenth largest donor on the list.[130] The organisation managing the French help is the French Development Agency, which finances primarily humanitarian projects in sub-Saharan Africa.[131] The main goals of this help are “developing infrastructure, access to health care and education, the implementation of appropriate economic policies and the consolidation of the rule of law and democracy.”[131]


Main article: French Armed Forces

Examples of France’s military. Clockwise from top left: Nuclear aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle; A Rafale fighter aircraft; FrenchChasseurs Alpins patrolling the valleys of Kapisa province in Afghanistan; a Leclerc tankin Paris for the 14 July Bastille Day Military Parade.

The French Armed Forces (Armées françaises) are the military and paramilitary forces of France, under thepresident as supreme commander. They consist of the French Army (Armée de Terre), French Navy (Marine Nationale), the French Air Force (Armée de l’Air) and the auxiliary paramilitary force, the National Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie nationale) and are among the largest armed forces in the world. While administratively a part of the French armed forces, and therefore under the purview of the Ministry of Defence, the Gendarmerie is operationally attached to the Ministry of the Interior.

The gendarmerie is a military police force that serves for the most part as a rural and general purpose police force. It encompasses the counter terrorist units of the Parachute Intervention Squadron of the National Gendarmerie (Escadron Parachutiste d’Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale) and the National Gendarmerie Intervention Group (Groupe d’Intervention de la Gendarmerie Nationale). One of the French intelligence units, theDirectorate-General for External Security (Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure) reports to the Ministry of Defence. The other, the Central Directorate of Interior Intelligence (Direction Centrale du Renseignement Intérieur), reports directly to the Ministry of the Interior. There has been no national conscription since 1997.[132] France has a unique military wing, the French Foreign Legion, which consists of foreign nationals from over 140 countries who are willing to serve in the French Armed Forces.

France is a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN, and a recognised nuclear state since 1960. France has signed and ratified the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)[133] and acceeded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. France’s annual military expenditure in 2011 was US$62.5 billion, or 2.3%, of its GDP making it the fifth biggest military spender in the world after the United States, China, Russia, and the United Kingdom.[134]

French nuclear deterrence, (formerly known as “Force de Frappe“), relies on complete independence. The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphantclass submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads,[135] of which around 50 are deployed by the Air Force using the Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft, while around 10 are deployed by the French Navy’s Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft, which operate from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. The new Rafale F3 aircraft will gradually replace all Mirage 2000N and SEM in the nuclear strike role with the improved ASMP-Amissile with a nuclear warhead.

France has major military industries with one of the largest aerospace industries in the world.[136][137] Its industries have produced such equipment as the Rafale fighter, the Charles de Gaulle aircraft carrier, the Exocet missile and the Leclerc tank among others. Despite withdrawing from the Eurofighter project, France is actively investing in European joint projects such as the Eurocopter Tigermultipurpose frigates, the UCAV demonstrator nEUROn and the Airbus A400M. France is a major arms seller,[138][139] with most of its arsenal’s designs available for the export market with the notable exception of nuclear-powered devices.

The military parade held in Paris each 14 July for France’s national day is the oldest and largest regular military parade in Europe.[140]

Government finance

See also: Taxation in France

French government borrowing (budget deficits) as a percentage of GNP, 1960–2009

In April and May 2012, France held a presidential election in which the winner, François Hollande, had opposed austerity measures, promising to eliminate France’s budget deficit by 2017. The new government stated that it aimed to cancel recently enacted tax cuts and exemptions for the wealthy, raising the top tax bracket rate to 75% on incomes over a million euros, restoring the retirement age to 60 with a full pension for those who have worked 42 years, restoring 60,000 jobs recently cut from public education, regulating rent increases; and building additional public housing for the poor.

In June, Hollande’s Socialist Party won a supermajority in legislative elections capable of amending theFrench Constitution and enabling the immediate enactment of the promised reforms. French government bond interest rates fell 30% to record lows,[141] less than 50 basis points above German government bond rates.[142]

Government debt

Under European Union rules, member states are supposed to limit their debt to 60% of output or be reducing the ratio structurally towards this ceiling, and run public deficits of no more than 3% of GDP. The French government has run a budget deficit each year since the early 1970s. In 2012, French government debt levels reached 1.8 trillion euros, the equivalent of 90% of French GDP.[143]

In late 2012, credit rating agencies warned that growing French government debt levels risked France’s AAA credit rating, raising the possibility of a future downgrade and subsequent higher borrowing costs for the French government.[144]


Main article: Economy of France

France derives 75% of its electricity from nuclear power, the highest percentage in the world.[145]

France is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and of the EU single market.

A member of the Group of 7 (formerly G8) leading industrialised countries, it is ranked as the world’s seventh largest and the EU’s second largest economy by purchasing power parity.[9] With 39 of the 500 biggest companies in the world in 2010, France ranks fourth in the Fortune Global 500, ahead of Germany and the UK.[146] France joined 11 other EU members to launch the euro in 1999, with euro coins and banknotes completely replacing the French franc (₣) in 2002.[147]

France has a mixed economy that combines extensive private enterprise[148][149] with substantial state enterprise and government intervention. The government retains considerable influence over key segments of infrastructure sectors, with majority ownership of railway, electricity, aircraft, nuclear power and telecommunications.[68] It has been relaxing its control over these sectors since the early 1990s.[68] The government is slowly corporatising the state sector and selling off holdings in France TélécomAir France, as well as in the insurance, banking, and defence industries.[68] France has an important aerospace industry led by the European consortium Airbus, and has its own national spaceport, the Centre Spatial Guyanais.

According to the World Trade Organization (WTO), in 2009 France was the world’s sixth largest exporter and the fourth largest importer of manufactured goods.[150] In 2008, France was the third largest recipient of foreign direct investmentamong OECD countries at $118 billion, ranking behind Luxembourg (where foreign direct investment was essentially monetary transfers to banks located there) and the US ($316 billion), but above the UK ($96.9 billion), Germany ($25 billion), or Japan ($24 billion).[151][152]

In the same year, French companies invested $220 billion outside France, ranking France as the second largest outward direct investor in the OECD, behind the US ($311 billion), and ahead of the UK ($111 billion), Japan ($128 billion) and Germany ($157 billion).[151][152]

Financial services, banking and the insurance sector are an important part of the economy. The Paris stock exchange (French:La Bourse de Paris) is an old institution, created by Louis XV in 1724.[153] In 2000, the stock exchanges of Paris, Amsterdam and Bruxelles merged into Euronext.[154] In 2007, Euronext merged with the New York stock exchange to form NYSE Euronext, the world’s largest stock exchange.[154] Euronext Paris, the French branch of the NYSE Euronext group is Europe’s 2nd largest stock exchange market, behind the London Stock Exchange.

French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA is the world’s largest insurance company. The leading French banks are BNP Paribas and the Crédit Agricole, ranking as the world’s first and sixth largest banks in 2010[155] (by assets), while the Société Générale group was ranked the world’s eighth largest in 2009.


Further information: Energy in France

Électricité de France (EDF), the main electricity generation and distribution company in France, is also one of the world’s largest producers of electricity. In 2003, it produced 22% of the European Union‘s electricity, primarily from nuclear power. France is the smallest emitter of carbon dioxide among the G8, due to its heavy investment in nuclear power.[156] As a result of large investments in nuclear technology, most electricity produced by France is generated by 59 nuclear power plants (75% in 2012).[157] In this context, renewable energies are having difficulty taking off. France also uses hydroelectric dams to produce electricity, such as the Eguzon damÉtang de Soulcem, and Lac de Vouglans.


The world-famous Champagne, widely regarded as a luxury goodassociated with the celebration of many important events or festivities, originates from theChampagne region in northeast France.

France has historically been a large producer of agricultural products.[158] Large tracts of fertile land, the application of modern technology, and EU subsidies have combined to make France the leading agricultural producer and exporter in Europe[159] (representing 20% of the EU’s agricultural production[160]) and the world’s third biggest exporter of agricultural products.[161]

Wheat, poultry, dairy, beef, and pork, as well as internationally recognized processed foods are the primary French agricultural exports. Rosé wines are primarily consumed within the country, but Champagne and Bordeaux wines are major exports, being known worldwide. EU agriculture subsidies to France have decreased in recent years, but still amounted to $8 billion in 2007.[162] That same year, France sold 33.4 billion euros of transformed agricultural products.[163]

Agriculture is an important sector of France’s economy: 3.8% of the active population is employed in agriculture, whereas the total agri-food industry made up 4.2% of French GDP in 2005.[160]

Labour market and unemployment

When “GDP per capita” is converted to U.S. dollars using purchasing power parities, it is the most widely used income measure for international comparisons of living standards. According to the American Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS), a 2011 report showed that France’s GDP per capita is similar to the UK, with just over US$35,000 GDP per capita.[164]The New York Times Op-Ed columnist Paul Krugman used the BLS data to state in January 2011 that “French workers are roughly as productive as US workers”, but fewer French people were working in 2011 and “when they work, they work fewer hours”. Krugman concluded that the differences were due to the French making “different choices about retirement and leisure.”[165]

Keynesian economists sought out different solutions to the unemployment issue in France, and their theories led to the introduction of the 35-hour workweek law in 1999, which eventually failed to reduce the unemployment rate. Between 2004 and 2008, the government attempted to combat unemployment with supply-side reforms, but was met with fierce resistance;[166] thecontrat nouvelle embauche and the contrat première embauche were of particular concern, and both were eventually repealed.[167] The Sarkozy government used therevenu de solidarité active to redress the negative effect of the revenu minimum d’insertion on the incentive to work.[168]

French employment rates for 15–64 years is one of the lowest of the OECD countries: in 2012, only 71% of the French population aged 15–64 years were in employment, compared to 74% in Japan, 77% in the UK, 73% in the US and 77% in Germany.[169] This gap is due to the low employment rate for 15–24 years old: 38% in 2012, compared to 47% in the OECD. Conservative economists attribute the low employment rate, particularly evident among young people, to high minimum wagesthat prevent low productivity workers—such as young people—from easily entering the labour market.[170] But Krugman states by contrast in his January 2011 Op-Ed that fewer French young people work “in part because of more generous college aid”, while the overall employment rate is lower than in the US because of the comparatively early retirement age in France—i.e. the difference is partly volitional.[165]

A December 2012 New York Times article reported on a “floating generation” in France that formed part of the 14 million unemployed young Europeans documented by the Eurofound research agency. In the same article, a senior economist studying unemployment at the OECD estimated that nearly two million young people in France had given up looking for employment at that time, while French labour minister Michel Sapin said that 82 percent of people hired were on temporary contracts. Sapin further explained that the challenge at that time was to create a more flexible system, in which greater trust existed between unions and companies, and “partial unemployment” was accommodated during difficult periods. The floating generation was attributed to a dysfunctional system: “an elitist educational tradition that does not integrate graduates into the work force, a rigid labor market that is hard to enter, and a tax system that makes it expensive for companies to hire full-time employees and both difficult and expensive to lay them off.”[171] In July 2013, the unemployment rate for France was 11%.[172]

In early April 2014, employers’ federations and unions negotiated an agreement with technology and consultancy employers, as employees had been experiencing an extension of their work time through smartphone communication outside of official working hours. Under a new, legally binding labour agreement, around 250,000 employees will avoid handling work-related matters during their leisure time and their employers will, in turn, refrain from engaging with staff during this time.[173]


Main article: Tourism in France

The Mont Saint-Michel is one of the most visited and recognisable landmarks in France. It is one of the 39 UNESCO World Heritage Sites in France.

The Mona Lisa is the World’s best known work of art,[174] on permanent display at the Louvre, the World’s most visited museum.[175]

With 83 million foreign tourists in 2012,[7] France is ranked as the first tourist destination in the world, ahead of the US (67 million) and China (58 million). This 83 million figure excludes people staying less than 24 hours, such as North Europeans crossing France on their way to Spain or Italy. It is third in income from tourism due to shorter duration of visits.[176] France has 37 sites inscribed in UNESCO’s World Heritage List and features cities of high cultural interest, beaches and seaside resorts, skiresorts, and rural regions that many enjoy for their beauty and tranquillity (green tourism). Small and picturesque French villages are promoted through the association Les Plus Beaux Villages de France (litt. “The Most Beautiful Villages of France”). The “Remarkable Gardens” label is a list of the over 200 gardens classified by the French Ministry of Culture. This label is intended to protect and promote remarkable gardens andparks. France attracts many religious pilgrims on their way to St. James, or to Lourdes, a town in the Hautes-Pyrénées that hosts several million visitors a year.

France, especially Paris, has some of the world’s largest and renowned museums, including the Louvre, which is the most visited art museum in the world, the Musée d’Orsay, mostly devoted to impressionism, and Beaubourg, dedicated toContemporary artDisneyland Paris is Europe’s most popular theme park, with 15 million combined visitors to the resort’sDisneyland Park and Walt Disney Studios Park in 2009.[177]

With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera (or Côte d’Azur), in south-east France, is the second leading tourist destination in the country, after the Paris region.[178] It benefits from 300 days of sunshine per year, 115 kilometres (71 mi) of coastline and beaches, 18 golf courses, 14 ski resorts and 3,000 restaurants.[179] Each year the Côte d’Azur hosts 50% of the world’s superyacht fleet.[180]

Another major destination are the Châteaux of the Loire Valley, this World Heritage Site is noteworthy for its architectural heritage, in its historic towns but in particular its castles (châteaux), such as the Châteaux d’Amboise, de Chambord, d’Ussé, de Villandry and Chenonceau. The most popular tourist sites include: (according to a 2003 ranking[181] visitors per year): Eiffel Tower (6.2 million), Louvre Museum (5.7 million), Palace of Versailles (2.8 million), Musée d’Orsay (2.1 million), Arc de Triomphe (1.2 million), Centre Pompidou (1.2 million), Mont Saint-Michel (1 million), Château de Chambord (711,000), Sainte-Chapelle(683,000), Château du Haut-Kœnigsbourg (549,000), Puy de Dôme (500,000), Musée Picasso (441,000), Carcassonne (362,000).


Main article: Transport in France

TGV Duplex, which can reach a maximum speed of 320 km/h (198.84 mph).

The railway network of France, which as of 2008 stretches 29,473 kilometres (18,314 mi)[182] is the second most extensive in Western Europe after that of Germany.[183] It is operated by the SNCF, and high-speed trains include the Thalys, the Eurostarand TGV, which travels at 320 km/h (199 mph) in commercial use.[184] The Eurostar, along with the Eurotunnel Shuttle, connects with the United Kingdom through the Channel Tunnel. Rail connections exist to all other neighbouring countries in Europe, except Andorra. Intra-urban connections are also well developed with both underground services and tramway services complementing bus services.

There are approximately 1,027,183 kilometres (638,262 mi) of serviceable roadway in France, ranking it the most extensive network of the European continent.[185] The Paris region is enveloped with the most dense network of roads and highways that connect it with virtually all parts of the country. French roads also handle substantial international traffic, connecting with cities in neighbouring Belgium, Spain, Andorra, Monaco, Switzerland, Germany and Italy. There is no annual registration fee or road tax; however, motorway usage is through tolls except in the vicinity of large communes. The new car market is dominated by domestic brands such as Renault (27% of cars sold in France in 2003), Peugeot (20.1%) and Citroën (13.5%).[186] Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines.[187] France possesses the Millau Viaduct, the world’s tallest bridge,[188] and has built many important bridges such as the Pont de Normandie.

There are 475 airports in France.[68] Charles de Gaulle Airport, located in the vicinity of Paris, is the largest and busiest airport in the country, handling the vast majority of popular and commercial traffic and connecting Paris with virtually all major cities across the world. Air France is the national carrier airline, although numerous private airline companies provide domestic and international travel services. There are ten major ports in France, the largest of which is in Marseille,[189] which also is the largest bordering the Mediterranean Sea.[190][191] 12,261 kilometres (7,619 mi) of waterways traverse France including the Canal du Midi, which connects the Mediterranean Sea to the Atlantic Ocean through the Garonne river.[68]



Main articles: Demographics of France and French people

Population density in the French Republic at the 1999 census.

With an estimated population of 66 million people as of July 2013, France is the 21st-most populous country in the world and the third-most populous in Europe.[68]

France is an outlier among developed countries in general, and European countries in particular, in having a fairly high rate of natural population growth: by birth rates alone, France was responsible for almost all natural population growth in the European Union in 2006, with the natural growth rate (excess of births over deaths) rising to 300,000.[192] This was the highest rate since the end of the baby boom in 1973, and coincides with the rise of the total fertility rate from a nadir of 1.7 in 1994 to 2.0 in 2010.[193][194]

From 2006 to 2011 population growth was on average +0.6% per year.[192] Immigrants are also major contributors to this trend; in 2010, 27% of newborns in metropolitan France had at least one foreign-born parent and 24% had at least one parent born outside of Europe (parents born in overseas territories are considered as born in France).[195]

Ethnic groups

Although the French people have historically been a mixture of several major ethnic groups – namely Celtic (Gallic and Breton), Latin, Aquitanian, and Germanic (Frankish, Alemannic, Viking) – large-scale immigration over the last century and a half has led to a more diverse society. In 2004, the Institut Montaigne estimated that within Metropolitan France, 51 million people were White (85% of the population), 6 million were North African (10%), 2 million were Black (3.5%), and 1 million were Asian (1.5%).[196][197]

A law originating from the 1789 revolution and reaffirmed in the 1958 French Constitution makes it illegal for the French state to collect data on ethnicity and ancestry, although some surveys, such as the TeO (“Trajectories and origins”) poll conducted jointly by INED and INSEE in 2008, are allowed to do so.[198][199] It was estimated that 5 million people were of Italian ancestry (the most numerous immigrant community), between 3 million[200][201] and 6 million[202] people are of North African ancestry, 2.5 million people are of Sub-Saharan African origin, 200,000 people are of Turkish ancestry,[203] and many more are of other European ethnic ancestry, namely SpanishPortuguesePolish, and Greek.[200][204][205]

It is currently estimated that 40% of the French population is descended at least partially from the different waves of immigration the country has received since the early 20th century;[206] between 1921 and 1935 alone, about 1.1 million net immigrants came to France.[207] The next largest wave came in the 1960s, when around 1.6 million pieds noirs returned to France following the independence of its North African possessions, Algeria and Morocco.[208][209] They were joined by numerous former colonial subjects from North and West Africa, as well as numerous immigrants from Spain and Portugal.

France remains a major destination for immigrants, accepting about 200,000 legal immigrants annually.[210] It is also Western Europe’s leading recipient ofasylum seekers, with an estimated 50,000 applications in 2005 (a 15% decrease from 2004).[211] The European Union allows free movement between the member states, although France established controls to curb Eastern European migration, and immigration remains a contentious political issue.

In 2008, the French national institute of statistics INSEE estimated that the total number of foreign-born immigrants was around 5 million (8% of the population), while their French-born descendants numbered 6.5 million, or 11% of the population. Thus, nearly a fifth of the country’s population were either first or second-generation immigrants, more than 5 million of European origin and 4 million of Maghrebi origin.[212][213][214] In 2008, France granted citizenship to 137,000 persons, mostly to people from Morocco, Algeria and Turkey.[215]

Major cities

France is a highly urbanized country, with its largest cities (in terms of metropolitan area population) in 2011 being Paris (12,292,900 inh.), Lyon(2,182,482), Marseille (1,721,031), Toulouse (1,250,251), Lille (1,159,547), Bordeaux (1,140,668), Nice (1,003,947), Nantes (884,275), and Strasbourg (763,739). (Note:There are significant differences between the metropolitan population figures just cited and those in the following table, which only include the core population). Rural flight was a perennial political issue throughout most of the 20th century.


A map of the Francophone world

  native language
  administrative language
  secondary or non-official language
  francophone minorities

According to Article 2 of the Constitution, the official language of France is French,[216] a Romance language derived from Latin. Since 1635, the Académie française has been France’s official authority on the French language, although its recommendations carry no legal power.

The French government does not regulate the choice of language in publications by individuals but the use of French is required by law in commercial and workplace communications. In addition to mandating the use of French in the territory of the Republic, the French government tries to promote French in the European Union and globally through institutions such as La Francophonie. The perceived threat from anglicisationhas prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. Besides French, there exist 77 vernacular minority languages of France, eight spoken in French metropolitan territory and 69 in the French overseas territories.

From the 17th to the mid-20th century, French served as the pre-eminent international language of diplomacy and international affairs as well as a lingua franca among the educated classes of Europe.[217]The dominant position of French language in international affairs was overtaken by English, since the emergence of the US as a major power.[45][218][219]

For most of the time in which French served as an international lingua franca, it was not the native language of most Frenchmen: a report in 1794 conducted byHenri Grégoire found that of the country’s 25 million people, only three million spoke French natively; the rest spoke one of the country’s many regional languages, such as AlsatianBreton or Occitan.[220] Through the expansion of public education, in which French was the sole language of instruction, as well as other factors such as increased urbanization and the rise of mass communication, French gradually came to be adopted by virtually the entire population, a process not completed until the 20th century.

As a result of France’s extensive colonial ambitions between the 17th and 20th centuries, French was introduced to the Americas, Africa, Polynesia, South-East Asia, and the Caribbean. French is the second most studied foreign language in the world after English,[221] and is a lingua franca in some regions, notably in Africa. The legacy of French as a living language outside Europe is mixed: it is nearly extinct in some former French colonies (The Levant, South and Southeast Asia), while creoles and pidgins based on French have emerged in the French departments in the West Indies and the South Pacific (French Polynesia). On the other hand, many former French colonies have adopted French as an official language, and the total number of French speakers is increasing, especially in Africa.

It is estimated that between 300 million[222] and 500 million[223] people worldwide can speak French, either as a mother tongue or a second language.


Main article: Religion in France

Notre-Dame de Reims is the Roman Catholic cathedral where the kings of France were crowneduntil 1825.[224]

France is a secular country, and freedom of religion is a constitutional right. French religious policy is based on the concept oflaïcité, a strict separation of church and state under which public life is kept completely secular.

Catholicism has been the predominant religion in France for more than a millennium, though it is not as actively practised today as it was. Among the 47,000 religious buildings in France, 94% are Roman Catholic.[225] While in 1965, 81% of the French declared themselves to be Catholics, in 2009 this proportion was 64%. Moreover, while 27% of the French went to Mass once a week or more in 1952, only 5% did so in 2006.[226] The same survey found that Protestants accounted for 3% of the population, an increase from previous surveys, and 5% adhered to other religions, with the remaining 28% stating they had no religion.[226] Evangelical Christianity may be the fastest growing religion in France.[227]

The French Revolution saw a radical shift in the status of the Catholic Church with the launch of a brutal campaign of de-Christianization. After the back and forth of Catholic royal and secular republican governments over the 19th century, laïcité was established with the 1905 law on the Separation of the Churches and the State.[228]

According to a poll in January 2007,[229] only 5% of the French population attended church regularly (10% attend church services regularly among the respondents who did identify themselves as Catholics). The poll showed[230] 51% identified as being Catholics, 31% identified as being agnostics or atheists (another poll[231] sets the proportion of atheists equal to 27%), 10% identified as being from other religions or being without opinion, 4% identified as Muslim, 3% identified as Protestant, 1% identified asBuddhist, 1% identified as Jewish. Meanwhile, an independent estimate by the politologist Pierre Bréchon in 2009 concluded that the proportion of Catholics had fallen to 42% while the number of atheists and agnostics had risen to 50%.[232]

Estimates of the number of Muslims in France vary widely. In 2003, the French Ministry of the Interior estimated the total number of people of Muslim background to be between 5 and 6 million (8–10%).[233][234] According to the Pewforum, “In France, proponents of a 2004 law banning the wearing of religious symbols in schools say it protects Muslim girls from being forced to wear a headscarf, but the law also restricts those who want to wear headscarves – or any other “conspicuous” religious symbol, including large Christian crosses and Sikh turbans – as an expression of their faith”[235]

The current Jewish community in France numbers around 600,000 according to the World Jewish Congress and is the largest in Europe.

Since 1905 the French government has followed the principle of laïcité, in which it is prohibited from recognising any specific right to a religious community (except for legacy statutes like that of military chaplains and the local law in Alsace-Moselle). Instead, it merely recognises religious organisations, according to formal legal criteria that do not address religious doctrine. Conversely, religious organizations should refrain from intervening in policy-making.[236] Certain bodies of beliefs such as ScientologyChildren of God, the Unification Church, or the Order of the Solar Temple are considered cults(“sectes” in French),[237] and therefore do not have the same status as religions in France. Secte is considered a pejorative term in France.[238]


Main article: Health in France

The Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, a teaching hospital in Paris, one of Europe’s largest hospitals.[239]

The French health care system is one of universal health care largely financed by government national health insurance. In its 2000 assessment of world health care systems, the World Health Organization found that France provided the “close to best overall health care” in the world.[240] The French healthcare system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997.[241][242] In 2011, France spent 11.6% of GDP on health care, or US$4,086 per capita,[243] a figure much higher than the average spent by countries in Europe but less than in the US. Approximately 77% of health expenditures are covered by government funded agencies.[244]

Care is generally free for people affected by chronic diseases (affections de longues durées) such as cancer, AIDS or Cystic Fibrosis. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union.[245] There are 3.22 physicians for every 1000 inhabitants in France,[246] and average health care spending per capita was US$4,719 in 2008.[247] As of 2007, approximately 140,000 inhabitants (0.4%) of France are living with HIV/AIDS.[68]

Even if the French have the reputation of being one of the thinnest peoples in developed countries,[248][249][250][251][252][253] France—like other rich countries—faces an increasing and recent epidemic of obesity, due mostly to the replacement of traditional healthy French cuisine by junk food in French eating habits.[248][249][254] Nevertheless, the French obesity rate is far below that of the USA (for instance, obesity rate in France is the same that the American once was in the 1970s[249]), and is still the lowest of Europe,[251][254] but it is now regarded by the authorities as one of the main public health issues[255] and is fiercely fought; rates of childhood obesity are slowing in France, while continuing to grow in other countries.[256]


Main article: Education in France

In 1802, Napoleon created the lycée.[257] Nevertheless it is Jules Ferry who is considered to be the father of the French modern school, which is free, secular, and compulsory until the age of 13 since 1882[258] (school attendance in France is now compulsory until the age of 16[259]).

Nowadays, the schooling system in France is centralized, and is composed of three stages, primary education, secondary education, and higher education. The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks France’s education as the 25th best in the world, being neither significantly higher nor lower than the OECD average.[260] Primary and secondary education are predominantly public, run by the Ministry of National Education.

Higher education in France is divided between public universities and the prestigious and selective Grandes écoles, such asScience Po Paris for Political studies, HEC Paris for Economics, Polytechnique and the École nationale supérieure des mines de Paris that produces high-profile engineers, or the École nationale d’administration for careers in the great corps of the State. The Grandes écoles have been criticised for alleged elitism,[261] nevertheless they have produced many if not most of France’s high-ranking civil servants, CEOs, and politicians.

Since higher education is funded by the state, the fees are very low; the tuition varies from €150 to €700 depending on the university and the different levels of education. (licence, master, doctorate). One can therefore get a Master’s degree (in 5 years) for about €750-3,500. The tuition in public engineering schools is comparable to universities, albeit a little higher (around €700). However it can reach €7000 a year for private engineering schools, and some business schools, which are all private or partially private, charge up to €15000 a year. Health insurance for students is free until the age of 20.


Main article: Culture of France

France has been a center of Western cultural development for centuries. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition.

The successive political regimes have always promoted artistic creation, and the creation of the Ministry of Culture in 1959 helped preserve the cultural heritage of the country and make it available to the public. The Ministry of Culture has been very active since its creation, granting subsidies to artists, promoting French culture in the world, supporting festivals and cultural events, protecting historical monuments. The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country.

France receives the highest number of tourists per year, largely thanks to the numerous cultural establishments and historical buildings implanted all over the territory. It counts 1,200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annually.[262] The most important cultural sites are run by the government, for instance through the public agency Centre des monuments nationaux, which is responsible for approximately 85 national historical monuments.

The 43,180 buildings protected as historical monuments include mainly residences (many castles, or châteaux in French) and religious buildings (cathedrals,basilicas, churches, etc.), but also statutes, memorials and gardens. The UNESCO inscribed 38 sites in France on the World Heritage List.[263]


Main article: French art

Claude Monet founded the Impressionist movement (Femme avec un parasol, 1886, Musée d’Orsay).

The origins of French art were very much influenced by Flemish art and by Italian art at the time of the Renaissance. Jean Fouquet, the most famous medieval French painter, is said to have been the first to travel to Italy and experience the Early Renaissance at first hand. The Renaissance painting School of Fontainebleau was directly inspired by Italian painters such as Primaticcio and Rosso Fiorentino, who both worked in France. Two of the most famous French artists of the time of Baroque eraNicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, lived in Italy.

The 17th century was the period when French painting became prominent and individualized itself through classicism. Louis XIV’s prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active French Academy in Rome to have direct relations with Italian artists.

Le Penseur by Auguste Rodin(1902), Musée Rodin, Paris.

French artists developed the rococo style in the 18th century, as a more intimate imitation of old baroque style, the works of the court-endorsed artists Antoine WatteauFrançois Boucher andJean-Honoré Fragonard being the most representative in the country. The French Revolution brought great changes, as Napoleon favoured artists of neoclassic style such as Jacques-Louis David and the highly influential Académie des Beaux-Arts defined the style known as Academism. At this time France had become a centre of artistic creation, the first half of the 19th century being dominated by two successive movements, at first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault andEugène Delacroix, and Realism with Camille CorotGustave Courbet and Jean-François Millet, a style that eventually evolved into Naturalism.

In the second part of the 19th century, France’s influence over painting became even more important, with the development of new styles of painting such as Impressionism and Symbolism. The most famous impressionist painters of the period wereCamille PissarroÉdouard ManetEdgar Degas, Claude Monet and Auguste Renoir.[264] The second generation of impressionist-style painters, Paul CézannePaul GauguinToulouse-Lautrec and Georges Seurat, were also at the avant-garde of artistic evolutions,[265] as well as the fauvist artists Henri MatisseAndré Derain and Maurice de Vlaminck.[266][267]

At the beginning of the 20th century, Cubism was developed by Georges Braque and the Spanish painter Pablo Picasso, living in Paris. Other foreign artists also settled and worked in or near Paris, such as Vincent van GoghMarc ChagallAmedeo Modigliani and Wassily Kandinsky.

Many museums in France are entirely or partly devoted to sculptures and painting works. A huge collection of old masterpieces created before or during the 18th century are displayed in the state-owned Musée du Louvre, such as Mona Lisa, also known as La Joconde. While the Louvre Palace has been for a long time a museum, the Musée d’Orsay was inaugurated in 1986 in the old railway station Gare d’Orsay, in a major reorganization of national art collections, to gather French paintings from the second part of the 19th century (mainly Impressionism and Fauvism movements).[268][269]

Modern works are presented in the Musée National d’Art Moderne, which moved in 1976 to the Centre Georges Pompidou. These three state-owned museums welcome close to 17 million people a year.[270] Other national museums hosting paintings include the Grand Palais (1.3 million visitors in 2008), but there are also many museums owned by cities, the most visited being the Musée d’Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris (0.8 million entries in 2008), which hosts contemporary works.[270]

Outside Paris, all the large cities have a Museum of Fine Arts with a section dedicated to European and French painting. Some of the finest collections are inLyonLilleRouenDijonRennes and Grenoble.


Main article: French architecture

Saint Louis’ Sainte Chapellerepresents the French impact on religious architecture.

Opéra Garnier, Paris, a symbol of the French Second Empire style

The world’s most visited paid monument,[271] the Eiffel Tower is an icon of both Paris and France.

During the Middle Ages, many fortified castles were built by feudal nobles to mark their powers. Some French castles that survived are ChinonChâteau d’Angers, the massive Château de Vincennes and the so-called Cathar castles. During this era, France had been using Romanesque architecture like most of Western Europe. Some of the greatest examples of Romanesque churches in France are the Saint Sernin Basilica in Toulouse, the largest romanesque church in Europe,[272] and the remains of the Cluniac Abbey.

The Gothic architecture, originally named Opus Francigenum meaning « French work »,[273] was born in Île-de-France and was the first French style of architecture to be copied in all Europe.[274] Northern France is the home of some of the most important Gothic cathedrals and basilicas, the first of these being the Saint Denis Basilica (used as the royal necropolis); other important French Gothic cathedrals are Notre-Dame de Chartres and Notre-Dame d’Amiens. The kings were crowned in another important Gothic church: Notre-Dame de Reims.[275] Aside from churches, Gothic Architecture had been used for many religious palaces, the most important one being the Palais des Papes in Avignon.

The final victory in the Hundred Years’ War marked an important stage in the evolution of French architecture. It was the time of the French Renaissance and several artists from Italy were invited to the French court; many residential palaces were built in the Loire Valley. Such residential castles were the Château de Chambord, the Château de Chenonceau, or theChâteau d’Amboise.

Following the renaissance and the end of the Middle Ages, Baroque architecture replaced the traditional Gothic style. However, in France, baroque architecture found a greater success in the secular domain than in a religious one.[276] In the secular domain, the Palace of Versailles has many baroque features. Jules Hardouin Mansart, who designed the extensions to Versailles, was one of the most influential French architect of the baroque era; he is famous for his dome at Les Invalides.[277] Some of the most impressive provincial baroque architecture is found in places that were not yet French such as the Place Stanislas in Nancy. On the military architectural side, Vauban designed some of the most efficient fortresses in Europe and became an influential military architect; as a result, imitations of his works can be found all over Europe, the Americas, Russia and Turkey.[278][279]

After the Revolution, the Republicans favoured Neoclassicism although neoclassicism was introduced in France prior to the revolution with such building as the Parisian Pantheon or the Capitole de Toulouse. Built during the first French Empire, the Arc de Triompheand Sainte Marie-Madeleine represent the best example of Empire style architecture.[280]

Under Napoleon III, a new wave of urbanism and architecture was given birth; extravagant buildings such as the neo-baroque Palais Garnier were built. The urban planning of the time was very organised and rigorous; for example, Haussmann’s renovation of Paris. The architecture associated to this era is named Second Empire in English, the term being taken from the Second French Empire. At this time there was a strong Gothic resurgence across Europe and in France; the associated architect was Eugène Viollet-le-Duc. In the late 19th century, Gustave Eiffel designed many bridges, such as Garabit viaduct, and remains one of the most influential bridge designers of his time, although he is best remembered for the iconic Eiffel Tower.

In the 20th century, French-Swiss architect Le Corbusier designed several buildings in France. More recently, French architects have combined both modern and old architectural styles. The Louvre Pyramid is an example of modern architecture added to an older building. The most difficult buildings to integrate within French cities are skyscrapers, as they are visible from afar. For instance, in Paris, since 1977, new buildings had to be under 37 meters, or 121 feet.[281] France’s largest financial district is La Defense, where a significant number of skyscrapers are located.[282] Other massive buildings that are a challenge to integrate into their environment are large bridges; an example of the way this has been done is the Millau Viaduct. Some famous modern French architects include Jean Nouvel,Dominique PerraultChristian de Portzamparc or Paul Andreu.


Main article: French literature

French literary figures. Clockwise from top left: Molièreis the most played author in theComédie-Française;[283] Victor Hugois one of the most important French novelists and poets, and is sometimes seen as the greatest French writer of all time.[284]19th-century poet, writer, and translator Charles Baudelaire; 20th-century philosopher and novelist Jean-Paul Sartre.

The earliest French literature dates from the Middle Ages, when what is now known as modern France did not have a single, uniform language. There were several languages and dialects and writers used their own spelling and grammar. Some authors of French mediaeval texts are unknown, such as Tristan and Iseult and Lancelot-Grail. Other authors are known, for exampleChrétien de Troyes and Duke William IX of Aquitaine, who wrote in Occitan.

Much mediaeval French poetry and literature were inspired by the legends of the Matter of France, such as The Song of Rolandand the various chansons de geste. The Roman de Renart, written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the mediaeval character Reynard (‘the Fox’) and is another example of early French writing.

An important 16th-century writer was François Rabelais, whose novel Gargantua and Pantagruel has remained famous and appreciated until now. Michel de Montaigne was the other major figure of the French literature during that century. His most famous work, Essais, created the literary genre of the essay.[285] French poetry during that century was embodied by Pierre de Ronsard and Joachim du Bellay. Both writers founded the La Pléiade literary movement.

During the 17th century, Madame de La Fayette published anonymously La Princesse de Clèves, a novel that is considered to be one of the very first psychological novels of all times.[286] Jean de La Fontaine is one of the most famous fabulist of that time, as he wrote hundreds of fables, some being far more famous than others, such as The Ant and the Grasshopper. Generations of French pupils had to learn his fables, that were seen as helping teaching wisdom and common sense to the young people. Some of his verses have entered the popular language to become proverbs.[287]

Jean Racine, whose incredible mastery of the alexandrine and of the French language has been praised for centuries, created plays such as Phèdre or Britannicus. He is, along with Pierre Corneille (Le Cid) and Molière, considered as one of the three great dramatists of the France’s golden age. Molière, who is deemed to be one of the greatest masters of comedy of theWestern literature,[288] wrote dozens of plays, including Le MisanthropeL’AvareLe Malade imaginaire, and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme. His plays have been so popular around the world that French language is sometimes dubbed as “the language of Molière” (la langue de Molière),[289] just like English is considered as “the language of Shakespeare“.

French literature and poetry flourished even more in the 18th and 19th centuries. Denis Diderot‘s best-known works areJacques the Fatalist and Rameau’s Nephew. He is however best known for being the main redactor of the Encyclopédie, whose aim was to sum up all the knowledge of his century (in fields such as arts, sciences, languages, philosophy) and to present them to the people, in order to fight ignorance and obscurantism. During that same century, Charles Perrault was a prolific writer of famous children’s fairy tales including Puss in BootsCinderellaSleeping Beauty and Bluebeard. At the start of the 19th century, symbolist poetry was an important movement in French literature, with poets such as Charles Baudelaire, Paul Verlaine andStéphane Mallarmé.[290]

The 19th century saw the writings of many renowned French authors. Victor Hugo is sometimes seen as “the greatest French writer of all times”[284] for excelling in all literary genres. The preface of his play Cromwell is considered to be the manifesto of the Romantic movementLes Contemplations and La Légende des siècles are considered as “poetic masterpieces”,[291] Hugo’s verse having been compared to that of Shakespeare, Dante and Homer.[291] His novel Les Misérables is widely seen as one of the greatest novel ever written[292] and The Hunchback of Notre Dame has remained immensely popular.

Other major authors of that century include Alexandre Dumas (The Three Musketeers and The Count of Monte-Cristo), Jules Verne (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea), Émile Zola (Les Rougon-Macquart), Honoré de Balzac (La Comédie humaine), Guy de MaupassantThéophile Gautier and Stendhal (The Red and the BlackThe Charterhouse of Parma), whose works are among the most well known in France and the world.

The Prix Goncourt is a French literary prize first awarded in 1903.[293] Important writers of the 20th century include Marcel ProustLouis-Ferdinand Céline,Albert Camus, and Jean-Paul SartreAntoine de Saint Exupéry wrote Little Prince, which has remained popular for decades with children and adults around the world.[294] As of 2014, French authors had more Literature Nobel Prizes than those of any other nation.[295] The first Nobel Prize in Literature was a French author, while France’s latest Nobel prize in literature is Patrick Modiano, who was awarded the prize in 2014.[295] Jean-Paul Sartre was also the first nominee in the committee’s history to refuse the prize in 1964.[295]


Main article: French philosophy

Medieval philosophy was dominated by Scholasticism until the emergence of Humanism in the Renaissance. Modern philosophy began in France in the 17th century with the philosophy of René DescartesBlaise Pascal, and Nicolas Malebranche. Descartes revitalised Western philosophy, which had been declined after the Greek and Roman eras.[296] His Meditations on First Philosophy changed the primary object of philosophical thought and raised some of the most fundamental problems for foreigners such as SpinozaLeibnizHumeBerkeley, and Kant.

René Descartes, founder of modern philosophy.

During the 18th century, French philosophers produced one of the most important works of the Age of Enlightenment. In The Spirit of the LawsBaron de Montesquieu theorized the principle of separation of powers, which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States. In The Social ContractJean-Jacques Rousseau openly criticized the European divine right monarchies and strongly affirmed the principle of the sovereignty of the peopleVoltaire came to embody the Enlightenment with his defence of civil liberties, such as the right to a free trial and freedom of religion.

19th-century French thought was targeted at responding to the social malaise following the French Revolution. Rationalist philosophers such as Victor Cousin and Auguste Comte, who called for a new social doctrine, were opposed by reactionnary thinkers such as Joseph de MaistreLouis de Bonald and Lamennais, who blamed the rationalist rejection of traditional order. De Maistre is considered, together with the Englishman Edmund Burke, one of the founders of European conservatism, while Comte is regarded as the founder of positivism and sociology.

In the early 20th century, French spiritualist thinkers such as Maine de BiranHenri Bergson and Louis Lavelle influenced Anglo-Saxon thought, including the Americans Charles Sanders Peirce and William James, and the Englishman Alfred North Whitehead. In the late 20th century, partly influenced by German phenomenology and existentialismpostmodern philosophy began in France, with notablepost-structuralist thinkers including Jean-François LyotardJean BaudrillardJacques DerridaJacques LacanMichel Foucault and Gilles Deleuze.


Ariane 4 launched fromKourouFrench Guiana(1988)

Since the Middle Ages, France has been a major contributor to scientific achievement . Around the beginning of the 11th century Pope Sylvester II reintroduced the abacus and armillary sphere, and introduced Arabic numerals and clocks to northern and western Europe.[297] The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important universities in the Western world.[298] In the 17th century, René Descartes defined a method for the acquisition of scientific knowledge, while Blaise Pascal became famous for his work on probability and fluid mechanics. They were both key figures of the Scientific revolution, which erupted in Europe during this period. The Academy of Sciences was founded by Louis XIV to encourage and protect the spirit of Frenchscientific research. It was at the forefront of scientific developments in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries. It is one of the earliest academies of sciences.

The Age of Enlightenment was marked by the work of biologist Buffon and chemist Lavoisier, who discovered the role of oxygen incombustion, while Diderot and D’Alembert published the Encyclopédie, which aimed to give access to “useful knowledge” to the people, a knowledge that they can apply to their everyday life.[299] With the Industrial Revolution, the 19th century saw spectacular scientific developments in France with scientists such as Augustin Fresnel, founder of modern opticsSadi Carnot who laid the foundations of thermodynamics, or Louis Pasteur, a pioneer of microbiology. Other eminent French scientists of the 19th century have their names inscribed on the Eiffel Tower.

Famous French scientists of the 20th century include the mathematician and physicist Henri Poincaré, physicists Henri Becquerel,Pierre and Marie Curie, remained famous for their work on radioactivity, the physicist Paul Langevin or virologist Luc Montagnier, co-discoverer of HIV AIDS.Hand transplantation was developed on September 23, 1998 in Lyon by a team assembled from different countries around the world including Jean-Michel Dubernardwho, shortly thereafter, performed the first successful double hand transplant.[300] Telesurgery was developed by Jacques Marescaux and his team on 7 September 2001 across the Atlantic Ocean (New-York-Strasbourg, Lindbergh Operation).[301] A face transplant was first done on November 27, 2005[302][303] by Dr Bernard Devauchelle.

As of 2014, 67 French people have been awarded a Nobel Prize[304] and 12 have received the Fields Medal.[305]


Main article: Music of France

Serge Gainsbourg, one of the world’s most influential popular musicians.[306]

France has a long and varied musical history. It experienced a golden age in the 17th century thanks to Louis XIV, who employed a number of talented musicians and composers in the royal court. The most renowned composers of this period include Marc-Antoine CharpentierFrançois CouperinMichel-Richard DelalandeJean-Baptiste Lully and Marin Marais, all of them composers at the court. After the death of the “Roi Soleil”, French musical creation lost dynamism, but in the next century the music of Jean-Philippe Rameau reached some prestige, and today he is still one of the most renowned French composers. Rameau became the dominant composer of French opera and the leading French composer for the harpsichord.[307]

French composers played an important role during the music of the 19th and early 20th century, which is considered to be theRomantic music era. Romantic music emphasized a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. This period was also a golden age for operas. French composers from the Romantic era included: Hector Berlioz (best known for his Symphonie fantastique), Georges Bizet(best known for Carmen, which has become one of the most popular and frequently performed operas), Gabriel Fauré (best known for hisPavaneRequiem, and nocturnes), Charles Gounod (best known for his Ave Maria and his opera Faust), Jacques Offenbach (best known for his 100 operettas of the 1850s–1870s and his uncompleted opera The Tales of Hoffmann), Édouard Lalo (best known for hisSymphonie espagnole for violin and orchestra and his Cello Concerto in D minor), Jules Massenet (best known for his operas, of which he wrote more than thirty, the most frequently staged are Manon (1884) and Werther (1892)) and Camille Saint-Saëns (he has many frequently-performed works, including The Carnival of the AnimalsDanse macabreSamson and Delilah (Opera), Introduction and Rondo Capriccioso, and his Symphony No. 3 (Organ Symphony)).

Later came precursors of modern classical music. Érik Satie was a key member of the early 20th century Parisian avant-garde, best known for his Gymnopédies.Francis Poulenc‘s best known works are his piano suite Trois mouvements perpétuels (1919), the ballet Les biches (1923), the Concert champêtre (1928) forharpsichord and orchestra, the opera Dialogues des Carmélites (1957), and the Gloria (1959) for soprano, choir and orchestra. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussyare the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. Debussy was among the most influential composers of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and his use of non-traditional scales and chromaticism influenced many composers who followed.[308] Debussy’s music is noted for its sensory content and frequent usage of atonality. The two composers invented new musical forms[309][310][311][312] and new sounds. Ravel’s piano compositions, such as Jeux d’eauMiroirsLe tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit, demand considerable virtuosity. His mastery of orchestration is evident in the Rapsodie espagnoleDaphnis et Chloé, his arrangement of Modest Mussorgsky‘s Pictures at an Exhibition and his orchestral work Boléro (1928).

More recently, at the middle of the 20th century, Maurice OhanaPierre Schaeffer and Pierre Boulez contributed to the evolutions of contemporary classical music.[313]

Daft Punk, pioneers of theFrench house.

French music then followed the rapid emergence of pop and rock music at the middle of the 20th century. Although English-speaking creations achieved popularity in the country, French pop music, known as chanson française, has also remained very popular. Among the most important French artists of the century are Édith PiafGeorges BrassensLéo FerréCharles Aznavour and Serge Gainsbourg. Although there are very few rock bands in France compared to English-speaking countries,[314]bands such as Noir DésirMano NegraNiagaraLes Rita Mitsouko and more recently SuperbusPhoenix and Gojira[315] have reached worldwide popularity.

Other French artists with international careers have been popular in several countries, for example female singers Dalida,Mireille Mathieu and Mylène Farmer,[315] electronic music pioneers Jean-Michel JarreLaurent Garnier and Bob Sinclar, and later Martin Solveig and David Guetta. In the 1990s and 2000s (decade), electronic duos Daft PunkJustice and Air also reached worldwide popularity and contributed to the reputation of modern electronic music in the world.[315][316][317]

Among current musical events and institutions in France, many are dedicated to classical music and operas. The most prestigious institutions are the state-ownedParis National Opera (with its two sites Palais Garnier and Opéra Bastille), the Opéra National de Lyon, the Théâtre du Châtelet in Paris, the Théâtre du Capitole in Toulouse and the Grand Théâtre de Bordeaux. As for music festivals, there are several events organized, the most popular being the Eurockéennes andRock en Seine. The Fête de la Musique, imitated by many foreign cities, was first launched by the French government in 1982.[318][319] Major music halls and venues in France include Le Zénith sites present in many cities and other places in Paris (Paris OlympiaThéâtre MogadorÉlysée Montmartre, etc.).


Main article: Cinema of France

Palme d’Or from the Cannes Film Festival, the world’s most prestigious and publicized film festival.[320][321][322]

France has historical and strong links with cinema, with two Frenchmen, Auguste and Louis Lumière (known as the Lumière Brothers) having created cinema in 1895.[323] Several important cinematic movements, including the late 1950s and 1960sNouvelle Vague, began in the country. It is noted for having a particularly strong film industry, due in part to protections afforded by the French government.[324][dated info] France remains a leader in filmmaking, as of 2006 producing more films than any other European country.[325] The nation also hosts the Cannes Festival, one of the most important and famous film festivals in the world.[326][327]

Apart from its strong and innovative film tradition, France has also been a gathering spot for artists from across Europe and the world. For this reason, French cinema is sometimes intertwined with the cinema of foreign nations. Directors from nations such as Poland (Roman PolanskiKrzysztof Kieślowski, and Andrzej Żuławski), Argentina (Gaspar Noé and Edgardo Cozarinsky), Russia (Alexandre AlexeieffAnatole Litvak), Austria (Michael Haneke), and Georgia (Géla BabluaniOtar Iosseliani) are prominent in the ranks of French cinema. Conversely, French directors have had prolific and influential careers in other countries, such as Luc BessonJacques Tourneur, or Francis Veber in the United States.

Although the French film market is dominated by Hollywood, France is the only nation in the world where American films make up the smallest share of total film revenues, at 50%, compared with 77% in Germany and 69% in Japan.[328] French films account for 35% of the total film revenues of France, which is the highest percentage of national film revenues in the developed world outside the United States, compared to 14% in Spain and 8% in the UK.[328] France is in 2013 the 2nd exporter of films in the world after the United States.[329]

Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,[217] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States. Subsequently, France takes steps in protecting and promoting its culture, becoming a leading advocate of the cultural exception.[330] The nation succeeded in convincing all EU members to refuse to include culture and audiovisuals in the list of liberalized sectors of the WTO in 1993.[331] Moreover, this decision was confirmed in a voting in the UNESCO in 2005, and the principle of “cultural exception” won an overwhelming victory: 198 countries voted for it, only 2 countries, the U.S and Israel, voted against it.[332]


Main article: French fashion

Chanel‘s headquarters on thePlace Vendôme, Paris.

Fashion has been an important industry and cultural export of France since the 17th century, and modern “haute couture” originated in Paris in the 1860s. Today, Paris, along with London, Milan, and New York City, is considered one of the world’s fashion capitals, and the city is home or headquarters to many of the premier fashion houses. The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards.

The association of France with fashion and style (Frenchla mode) dates largely to the reign of Louis XIV[333] when the luxury goods industries in France came increasingly under royal control and the French royal court became, arguably, the arbiter of taste and style in Europe. But France renewed its dominance of the high fashion (Frenchcouture or haute couture) industry in the years 1860–1960 through the establishing of the great couturier houses such as ChanelDior, andGivenchy. The French perfume industry is world leader in its sector and is centered on the town of Grasse.[334]

In the 1960s, the elitist “Haute couture” came under criticism from France’s youth culture. In 1966, the designer Yves Saint Laurent broke with established Haute Couture norms by launching a prêt-à-porter (“ready to wear”) line and expanding French fashion into mass manufacturing. With a greater focus on marketing and manufacturing, new trends were established by Sonia RykielThierry MuglerClaude MontanaJean-Paul Gaultier and Christian Lacroix in the 1970s and 1980s. The 1990s saw a conglomeration of many French couture houses under luxury giants and multinationals such as LVMH.


Le Figaro was founded in 1826; many of France’s most prominent authors have written in its columns over the decades, and it is still considered a newspaper of record.[335]

Compared to other developed countries, the French do not spend much time reading newspapers, due to the popularity of broadcast media. Best-selling daily national newspapers in France are Le Parisien Aujourd’hui en France (with 460,000 sold daily), Le Monde and Le Figaro, with around 300,000 copies sold daily, but also L’Équipe, dedicated to sports coverage.[336]In the past years, free dailies made a breakthrough, with Metro20 Minutes and Direct Plus distributed at more than 650,000 copies respectively.[337] However, the widest circulations are reached by regional daily Ouest France with more than 750,000 copies sold, and the 50 other regional papers have also high sales.[338][339] The sector of weekly magazines is stronger and diversified with more than 400 specialized weekly magazines published in the country.[340]

The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur, centrist L’Express and right-wing Le Point(more than 400.000 copies),[341] but the highest circulation for weeklies is reached by TV magazines and by women’s magazines, among them Marie Claire and ELLE, which have foreign versions. Influential weeklies also include investigative and satirical papers Le Canard Enchaîné and Charlie Hebdo, as well as Paris Match. Like in most industrialized nations, the print media have been affected by a severe crisis in the past decade. In 2008, the government launched a major initiative to help the sector reform and become financially independent,[342][343] but in 2009 it had to give 600,000 euros to help the print media cope with theeconomic crisis, in addition to existing subsidies.[344]

In 1974, after years of centralized monopoly on radio and television, the governmental agency ORTF was split into several national institutions, but the three already-existing TV channels and four national radio stations[345][346] remained under state-control. It was only in 1981 that the government allowed free broadcasting in the territory, ending state monopoly on radio.[346] French television was partly liberalized in the next two decade with the creation of several commercial channels, mainly thanks to cable and satellite television. In 2005 the national service Télévision Numérique Terrestre introduced digital television all over the territory, allowing the creation of other channels.

The four existing national channels are now owned by state-owned consortium France Télévisions, while public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations. Among these public media are Radio France Internationale, which broadcasts programs in French all over the world, and Franco-German TV channelTV5 Monde. In 2006, the government created global news channel France 24. Long-established TV channels TF1 (privatized in 1987), France 2 and France 3 have the highest shares, while radio stations RTLEurope 1 and state-owned France Inter are the least listened to.


Marianne, in a painting byEugène DelacroixLa Liberté guidant le peuple (Liberty Leading the People) (1830)

According to a BBC poll in 2010, based on 29,977 responses in 28 countries, France is globally seen as a positive influence in the world’s affairs: 49% have a positive view of the country’s influence, whereas 19% have a negative view.[347][348] TheNation Brand Index of 2008 suggested that France has the second best international reputation, only behind Germany.[349]

A Gallic rooster on top of a war memorialin La Rochelle

According to a poll in 2011, the French were found to have the highest level of religious tolerance and to be the country where the highest proportion of the population defines its identity primarily in term of nationality and not religion.[350] 69% of French have a favourable view of the US, making France one of the most pro-American countries in the world.[351]

In January 2010, the magazine International Living ranked France as “best country to live in”, ahead of 193 other countries, for the fifth year running.[352][353]

The French Revolution continues to permeate the country’s collective memory. The tricolour flag, the anthem “La Marseillaise“, and the motto Liberté, egalité, fraternité, defined in Title 1 of theConstitution as national symbols, all emerged during the cultural ferment of the early revolution, along with Marianne, a common national personification. In addition, Bastille Day, the national holiday, commemorates the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789.[354]

A common and traditional symbol of the French people is the Gallic rooster. Its origins date back to Antiquity, since the Latin word Gallus meant both “rooster” and “inhabitant of Gaul”. Then this figure gradually became the most widely shared representation of the French, used by French monarchs, then by the Revolution and under the successive republican regimes as representation of the national identity, used for some stamps and coins.[355]


Main article: French cuisine

Foie gras with mustard seeds and green onions in duck jus. Foie gras belongs to the protected gastronomical heritage of France.[356]

French cuisine is renowned for being one of the finest in the world.[357][358] According to the regions, traditional recipes are different, the North of the country prefers to use butter as the preferred fat for cooking, whereas olive oil is more commonly used in the South.[359] Moreover, each region of France has iconic traditional specialities : Cassoulet in the Southwest, Choucroute in Alsace, Quiche in the Lorraine regionBeef bourguignon in the Bourgogneprovençal Tapenade, etc. France’s most renowned products are wines,[360] including ChampagneBordeauxBourgogne, and Beaujolais as well as a large variety of different cheeses, such as CamembertRoquefort and Brie. There are more than 400 different varieties.[361][362]

A meal often consists of three courses, hors d’œuvre or entrée (introductory course, sometimes soup), plat principal (main course), fromage (cheese course) and/or dessert, sometimes with a salad offered before the cheese or dessert. Hors d’œuvres include terrine de saumon au basilic, lobster bisque, foie grasFrench onion soup or a croque monsieur. The plat principal could include a pot au feu or steak frites. The dessert could be mille-feuille pastry, a macaron, an eclaircrème brûlée,mousse au chocolatcrêpes, or Café liégeois.

French cuisine is also regarded as a key element of the quality of life and the attractiveness of France.[353] A French publication, the Michelin guide, awards Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments.[363] The acquisition or loss of a star can have dramatic effects on the success of a restaurant. By 2006, the Michelin Guide had awarded 620 stars to French restaurants, at that time more than any other country, although the guide also inspects more restaurants in France than in any other country (by 2010, Japan was awarded as many Michelin stars as France, despite having half the number of Michelin inspectors working there).[364][365]


Main article: Sport in France

The Tour de France is the oldest and most prestigious of Grands Tours, and the world’s most famous cycling race.[366]

Popular sports played in France include footballjudo, tennis[367] and rugby union.[368] France has hosted events such as the1938 and 1998 FIFA World Cups,[369] and the 2007 Rugby World Cup.[370] France will host UEFA Euro 2016. The Stade de France inSaint-Denis is France’s largest stadium and was the venue for the 1998 FIFA World Cup and 2007 Rugby World Cup finals. France hosts the annual Tour de France, the most famous road bicycle race in the world.[371][372] France is famous for its 24 Hours of Le Mans sports car endurance race.[373] Several major tennis tournaments take place in France, including the Paris Masters and the French Open, one of the four Grand Slam tournaments. French martial arts include Savate and Fencing.

France has a close association with the Modern Olympic Games; it was a French aristocrat, Baron Pierre de Coubertin, who suggested the Games’ revival, at the end of the 19th century.[374][375] After Athens was awarded the first Games, in reference to the Olympics’ Greek origins, Paris hosted the second Games in 1900.[376] Paris was the first home of the International Olympic Committee, before it moved to Lausanne.[377] Since 1900, France has hosted the Olympics on 4 further occasions: the1924 Summer Olympics, again in Paris[375] and three Winter Games (1924 in Chamonix1968 in Grenoble and 1992 inAlbertville).[375]

The Stade de France was built for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, and is listed as a UEFA category four stadium.

Both the national football team and the national rugby union team are nicknamed “Les Bleus” in reference to the team’s shirt color as well as the national French tricolor flag. Football is the most popular sport in France, with over 1,800,000 registered players, and over 18,000 registered clubs.[378] The football team is among the most successful in the world, particularly at the start of the 21st century, with one FIFA World Cup victory in 1998,[379] one FIFA World Cup second place in 2006,[380] and two UEFA European Championships in 1984[381] and 2000.[382] The top national football club competition isLigue 1. France has produced some of the greatest players in the world, including three time FIFA World Player of the YearZinedine Zidane, three time Ballon d’Or recipient Michel Platini, record holder for most goals scored at a World Cup Just Fontaine, first football player to receive the Légion d’honneur Raymond Kopa, and the all-time leading goalscorer for the French national team Thierry Henry.[383]

Rugby union is popular, particularly in Paris and the southwest of France.[384] The national rugby union team has competed at every Rugby World Cup, and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. Stemming from a strong domestic league, the French rugby team has won 16 Six Nations Championships, including 8 grand slams; and has reached the semi-final of the Rugby World Cup 6 times and the final 3 times.

Rugby league in France is a sport that is most popular in the south, in cities such as Perpignan and Toulouse. The Catalans Dragons currently play in the Super League, which is the top tier rugby league competition in Europe. The Elite One Championship is the professional competition for rugby league clubs in France.

In recent decades, France has produced world-elite basketball players, most notably Tony Parker. The French National Basketball Team won gold at the FIBA EuroBasket 2013. The national team has won two Olympic Silver Medals: in 2000 and 1948.

See also


  1. Jump up^ Excluding Adélie Land in Antarctica, where sovereignty is suspended.
  2. Jump up^ French is the official and national language throughout the French Republic. For information about regional languages see Languages of France.
  3. Jump up to:a b Including all the overseas departments and overseas territories but excluding the French territory of Terre Adélie in Antarctica where sovereignty is suspended since the signing of the Antarctic Treaty in 1959.
  4. Jump up^ French National Geographic Institute data, which includes bodies of water.
  5. Jump up^ French Land Register data, which exclude lakes, ponds and glaciers larger than 1 km² (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) as well as the estuaries of rivers.
  6. Jump up^ Metropolitan France only. The population density for the whole territory of the French Republic (including overseas departments and territories) is 96.837/km2(250.808/sq mi).
  7. Jump up^ Whole of the French Republic except the overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean.
  8. Jump up^ French overseas territories in the Pacific Ocean only.
  9. Jump up^ CET applies to Metropolitan France only. Time zones across the French Republic span from UTC-10 (PF) to UTC+12 (WF).
  10. Jump up^ CEST applies to Metropolitan France only. Not all overseas territories observeDaylight Saving Time.
  11. Jump up^ The overseas regions and collectivities form part of the French telephone numbering plan, but have their own country calling codes: Guadeloupe +590;Martinique +596; French Guiana +594, Réunion and Mayotte +262; Saint Pierre and Miquelon +508. The overseas territories are not part of the French telephone numbering plan; their country calling codes are: New Caledonia +687, French Polynesia +689; Wallis and Futuna +681.
  12. Jump up^ In addition to .fr, several other Internet TLDs are used in French overseasdépartements and territories: France also uses .eu, shared with other members of the European Union. domain is used in Catalan-speaking territories.
  13. Jump up^ French Guiana is located in South AmericaGuadeloupe and Martinique are in theCaribbean; and Réunion and Mayotte are in the Indian Ocean, off the coast ofAfrica. All five are considered integral parts of the republic. France also comprises Saint Martin and Saint Pierre and Miquelon in North AmericaSaint Barthélemy in the Caribbean; French PolynesiaNew CaledoniaWallis and Futunaand Clipperton Island in the Pacific Ocean; and finally French Southern and Antarctic Lands


  1. Jump up^ “Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density” (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. 2010. Area calculated by adding area of Metropolitan France with those of overseas departments
  2. Jump up to:a b INSEEGovernment of France“Évolution de la population jusqu’en 2014 – champs France hors Mayotte” (in French). Retrieved January 2014. (French departments without Mayotte: 65,821,000 inhabitants)
    INSEEGovernment of France“Populations légales dans les collectivités d’outre-mer et Mayotte”. Retrieved January 2014. (Mayotte : 212,645 inhabitants – overseas collectivities : 337,191 – new Caledonia : 245,580)
    Total (French departments+French overseas collectivies+New Caledonia) : 66,616,416 inhabitants
  3. Jump up to:a b c d “France”. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 1 November 2014.
  4. Jump up^ “CIA World Factbook”. CIA. Retrieved 16 April 2013.
  5. Jump up^ “2014 Human Development Report Summary”. United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.
  6. Jump up^ Hargreaves, Alan G., ed. (2005). Memory, Empire, and Postcolonialism: Legacies of French Colonialism. Lexington Books. p. 1. ISBN 9780739108215.
  7. Jump up to:a b “UNWTO Highlights” (PDF). United Nations World Tourism Organization. Retrieved 11 September 2013.[dead link]
  8. Jump up^ “Great Powers – Encarta. MSN. 2008″. Retrieved 22 June2012.
  9. Jump up to:a b “GDP, PPP (current international $) | Data | Table”. World Bank. 2 September 1943. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  10. Jump up^ “Global Wealth Report”. Credit Suisse. Retrieved 27 October 2014. “In euro and USD terms, the total wealth of French households is very sizeable. Although it has just 1% of the world’s adults, France ranks fourth among nations in aggregate household wealth – behind China and just ahead of Germany. Europe as a whole accounts for 35% of the individuals in the global top 1%, but France itself contributes a quarter of the European contingent.
  11. Jump up^ Centre national de documentation pédagogique, “2011, ANNÉE DES OUTRE-MER” [1]
  12. Jump up^ “World Health Organization Assesses the World’s Health Systems”. World Health Organization. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  13. Jump up^ “World Population Prospects – The 2006 Revision” (PDF). UN. Retrieved27 April 2010.
  14. Jump up to:a b “Europa Official Site – France”. EU. Retrieved 28 October 2014.
  15. Jump up^ “History of France”. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  16. Jump up^ Perry, Walter Copland (1857). The Franks, from Their First Appearance in History to the Death of King Pepin. London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, and Roberts.
  17. Jump up^ Examples: “frank”. American Heritage Dictionary. “frank”. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary. And so on.
  18. Jump up^ Michel Rouche (1987). “The Early Middle Ages in the West”. In Paul Veyne. A History of Private Life: From Pagan Rome to Byzantium. Belknap Press. p. 425.ISBN 0-674-39974-9OCLC 59830199.
  19. Jump up^ Tarassuk, Leonid; Blair, Claude (1982). The Complete Encyclopedia of Arms and Weapons: the most comprehensive reference work ever published on arms and armor from prehistoric times to the present with over 1,250 illustrationsSimon & Schuster. p. 186. ISBN 0-671-42257-X. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  20. Jump up^ Isidore of SevilleEthymologiarum sive originum, libri XVIII
  21. Jump up to:a b c d Jean Carpentier (dir.), François Lebrun (dir.), Alain Tranoy, Élisabeth Carpentier et Jean-Marie Mayeur (préface de Jacques Le Goff), Histoire de France, Points Seuil, coll. « Histoire », Paris, 2000 (1re éd. 1987), p. 17 ISBN 2-02-010879-8
  22. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 20–24
  23. Jump up^ The Cambridge ancient history. Cambridge University Press. 2000. p. 754.ISBN 978-0-521-08691-2. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  24. Jump up^ Claude Orrieux (1999). A history of ancient Greece. John Wiley & Sons. p. 62.ISBN 978-0-631-20309-4. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  25. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 29
  26. Jump up^ “Provence in Stone”Life. 13 July 1953. p. 77. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  27. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, p.44-45
  28. Jump up to:a b Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 53–55
  29. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 76–77
  30. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 79–82
  31. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 81
  32. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, p. 84
  33. Jump up^ Carpentier et al. 2000, pp. 84–88
  34. Jump up^ “Faith of the Eldest Daughter – Can France retain her Catholic heritage?”. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  35. Jump up^ “France”Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved14 December 2011. See drop-down essay on “Religion and Politics until the French Revolution”
  36. Jump up^ “Treaty of Verdun”. 27 February 2008. Retrieved17 July 2011.
  37. Jump up^ “History of France : The Capetian kings of France: AD 987–1328″. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  38. Jump up^ “Massacre of the Pure”Time (New York). 28 April 1961.
  39. Jump up to:a b c Albert Guerard, France: A Modern History (University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor, 1959) pp. 100, 101.
  40. Jump up^ “France VII”Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2009. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  41. Jump up^ Don O’Reilly. “Hundred Years’ War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans“
  42. Jump up^ Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie (1987). “The French peasantry, 1450–1660“. University of California Press. p. 32. ISBN 0-520-05523-3
  43. Jump up^ Peter Turchin (2003). “Historical dynamics: why states rise and fall“. Princeton University Press. p. 179. ISBN 0-691-11669-5
  44. Jump up^ “Massacre of Saint Bartholomew’s Day”. Retrieved 21 July2011.
  45. Jump up to:a b “Language and Diplomacy”. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  46. Jump up^ “BBC History : Louis XV (1710–1774)”. BBC. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  47. Jump up^ “Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones (2002)” (PDF). Retrieved 21 July2011.
  48. Jump up^ Censer, Jack R. and Hunt, Lynn. Liberty, Equality, Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution. University Park, Pennsylvania: Pennsylvania State University Press, 2004.
  49. Jump up^ Doyle, William. The Oxford History of The French Revolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1989. pp 191–192.
  50. Jump up^ Dr Linton, Marisa. “The Terror in the French Revolution”. Kingston University.
  51. Jump up^ Jacques Hussenet (dir.), « Détruisez la Vendée ! » Regards croisés sur les victimes et destructions de la guerre de Vendée, La Roche-sur-Yon, Centre vendéen de recherches historiques, 2007
  52. Jump up to:a b Blanning, Tim (April 1998). “Napoleon and German identity”History Today48 (London).
  53. Jump up^ “France’s oldest WWI veteran dies”. London: BBC News. 20 January 2008.
  54. Jump up^ Spencer C. Tucker, Priscilla Mary Roberts (2005). “Encyclopedia Of World War I: A Political, Social, And Military History“. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 1851094202
  55. Jump up^ Vichy France and the Jews“. Michael Robert Marrus, Robert O. Paxton (1995).Stanford University Press. p. 368.ISBN 0-8047-2499-7
  56. Jump up^ “The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies”.
  57. Jump up^ “BBC, The Vichy Policy on Jewish Deportation”.
  58. Jump up^ France, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum,
  59. Jump up^ Noir sur Blanc: Les premières photos du camp de concentration de Buchenwald après la libération, (French)
  60. Jump up^ Kimmelman, Michael (4 March 2009). “In France, a War of Memories Over Memories of War”The New York Times.
  61. Jump up^ Crozier, Brian; Mansell, Gerard (July 1960). “France and Algeria”.International Affairs (Blackwell Publishing) 36 (3): p. 310.doi:10.2307/2610008JSTOR 2610008.
  62. Jump up^ From Fourth to Fifth Republic[dead link] – University of Sunderland
  63. Jump up^ “Declaration by the Franco-German Defense and Security Council”. Archived from the original on 25 October 2005. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  64. Jump up^ “France and NATO”La France à l’Otan.
  65. Jump up^ Yvonne Yazbeck Haddad and Michael J. Balz, “The October Riots in France: A Failed Immigration Policy or the Empire Strikes Back?” International Migration(2006) 44#2 pp 23-34.
  66. Jump up^ Hinnant, Lori; Adamson, Thomas (11 January 2015). “Officials: Paris Unity Rally Largest in French History”Associated Press. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
  67. Jump up^ “Paris attacks: Millions rally for unity in France”BBC News. 12 January 2015. Retrieved 12 January 2015.
  68. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k “The World Factbook: France”. Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 23 January 2013.
  69. Jump up^ “Mont Blanc shrinks by 45 cm (17.72 in) in two years”Sydney Morning Herald. 6 November 2009. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  70. Jump up^ Protection of the Environment on the Official Site of the French Ambassy in Canada
  71. Jump up^ “Nuclear Power in France”. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  72. Jump up^ “Energy profile of France”. Retrieved 17 July 2011.
  73. Jump up^ (French) CO2 : la France mois pollueuse grâce au nucléaire
  74. Jump up^ (French) L’énergie nucléaire en France – Ambassade française en Chine
  75. Jump up^ Ian Traynor and David Gow in Brussels (21 February 2007). “EU promises 20% reduction in carbon emissions by 2020″The Guardian (London). Retrieved21 July 2011.
  76. Jump up^ (French) Les quatres enjeux de Copenhague – La Croix
  77. Jump up^ Kanter, James (1 July 2010). “Per-Capita Emissions Rising in China”. Beijing (China);China;Copenhagen (Denmark);France;India;Russia;United States: The New York Times. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  78. Jump up^ Reuters (10 September 2009). “France Sets Carbon Tax at 17 Euros a Ton”The New York Times (France). Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  79. Jump up^ “France set to impose carbon tax”. BBC News. 10 September 2009. Retrieved21 July 2011.
  80. Jump up^ Saltmarsh, Matthew (23 March 2010). “France Abandons Plan for Carbon Tax”.The New York Times (France). Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  81. Jump up^ “Forest area by country”. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  82. Jump up^ Evolution of the French forest from 1984 to 1996 – French National Forest Inventory
  83. Jump up^ (French) Une situation privilégiée en France et en Europe – Papier, bois et forêt
  84. Jump up^ Parks, Reserves, and Other Protected Areas in France – The portal about parks in Italy
  85. Jump up^ (French) Fédération des parcs naturels régionaux de France
  86. Jump up^ (French) La France veut créer une Zone Économique Exclusive en Méditérannée– Actu-Environnement
  87. Jump up^ Regional nature Parks of France by the Federation of the regional nature Parks of France, pdf. Retrieved 22 Jun 2014.
  88. Jump up^ William M. Lafferty (2001). Sustainable communities in Europe. Earthscan. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-85383-791-3. Retrieved 7 August 2011.
  89. Jump up^ Maison de la France (2008). “France Guide: Regional Natural Parks”. French Government Tourist Office. Retrieved 27 October 2011.
  90. Jump up^ “Country Profiles -starts at Switzerland, click for France”. Yale. Retrieved9 August 2010.
  91. Jump up^ (French) La France au 7ème rang mondial pour l’environnementLe Monde. 30 May 2010
  92. Jump up^ “Departments of France” (in French). Retrieved 21 July2011.
  93. Jump up^ “Currency and Exchange Rate”. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  94. Jump up^ “CIA – The World Factbook”. CIA. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  95. Jump up^ “Comparative studies in Freedom – France”. Democracy Web. Retrieved30 September 2013.
  96. Jump up^ France: Fifth Republic[dead link] – Flags of the World
  97. Jump up^ (French) Le quinquennat : le référendum du 24 Septembre 2000
  98. Jump up^ The National Assembly and the Senate – General Characteristics of the Parliament. Official Site of the French National Assembly
  99. Jump up^ Election of deputies. Official Site of the National Assembly
  100. Jump up^ The senatorial elections. Official Site of the Senate
  101. Jump up^ (French) Le role du Sénat
  102. Jump up^ Grunberg, Gérard (2007). La France vers le bipartisme ? : La présidentialisation du PS et de l’UMP (in French). ISBN 2-7246-1010-5.
  103. Jump up^ “François Hollande signs same-sex marriage into law”. France 24. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 27 June 2013.
  104. Jump up^ “France: Strict Defamation and Privacy Laws Limit Free Expression – Index on Censorship | Index on Censorship.” France: Strict Defamation and Privacy Laws Limit Free Expression – Index on Censorship | Index on Censorship. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 February 2014. [2].
  105. Jump up^ (French) La lutte contre le racisme et l’antisémintisme en France. AmbaFrance
  106. Jump up^ Kenneth Roth Executive Director (26 February 2004). “Human Rights Watch”. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 31 January 2009.
  107. Jump up^ “France votes to ban full-face veils”Amnesty International. 13 July 2010.
  108. Jump up^ Dumoulin, Frederic (14 September 2010). “French parliament adopts ban on full-face veil”. Google News. Retrieved 14 September 2010.[dead link]
  109. Jump up^ Membership of the Security Councils of the UN[dead link] on the Official Site of the UN
  110. Jump up^ “Understanding the WTO – Members”. WTO. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  111. Jump up^ History on the Official Site of the SPC
  112. Jump up^ (French) Pays membres[dead link] – Site officiel de la COI[dead link]
  113. Jump up^ “About the Association of Caribbean States”. 24 July 1994. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  114. Jump up^ (French) États et gouvernements : le monde de la Francophonie – Site officiel de l’OIF
  115. Jump up^ Embassies and consulates on the Official Site of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of France
  116. Jump up^ (French) L’alliance Franco-allemande au coeur de la puissance européenne
  117. Jump up^ “De Gaulle says ‘non’ to Britain – again”. BBC News. 27 November 1967. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  118. Jump up^ (French) Quand Mitterrand, déjà, négociait le retour de la France dans l’OTAN– Le Figaro
  119. Jump up^ “China adds voice to Iraq war doubts”. CNN. 23 January 2003. Retrieved21 July 2011.
  120. Jump up^ “EU allies unite against Iraq war”. BBC News. 22 January 2003. Retrieved21 July 2011.
  121. Jump up^ “Foreign Policy Implications of the Iraq War”. 11 March 2004. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  122. Jump up^ Sean Loughlin CNN Washington Bureau (12 March 2003). “House cafeterias change names for ‘french’ fries and ‘french’ toast”. CNN. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  123. Jump up^ (French) France-Diplomatie : Royaume-Uni – Ministère des Affaires Étrangères
  124. Jump up^ “France ends four-decade Nato rift”. BBC News. 12 March 2009. Retrieved21 July 2011.
  125. Jump up^ Roger, Patrick (11 March 2009). “Le retour de la France dans l’OTAN suscite un malaise dans les rangs de la Droite”Le Monde (in French) (Paris).
  126. Jump up^ “Fifth French nuclear test sparks international outrage”. CNN. 28 December 1995. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  127. Jump up^ (French) L’empire colonial français
  128. Jump up^ “France involvement in peace-keeping operations”. Retrieved 9 August 2010.[dead link]
  129. Jump up^ Net Official Development Assistance 2009 OECD
  130. Jump up^ “Development assistance and humanitarian action”. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  131. Jump up to:a b France priorities – France Diplomatie
  132. Jump up^ (French) La fin du service militaire obligatoire – La documentation française
  133. Jump up^ “Status of signature and ratification”. CTBTO Preparatory Commission. 26 May 2010. Retrieved 27 May 2010.
  134. Jump up^ “The 15 countries with the highest military spending worldwide in 2012 (in billion U.S. dollars)”. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
  135. Jump up^ (French) Centre de Documentation et de Recherche sur la Paix et les Conflits,Etat des forces nucléaires françaises au 15 août 2004
  136. Jump up^ “90.07.06: The Aerospace Industry: Its History and How it Affects the U.S. Economy”. Yale. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  137. Jump up^ “Aerospace industry of France”. Retrieved 9 August2010.[dead link]
  138. Jump up^ “En 2001, la France a vendu pour 1,288 milliard de dollars d’équipements militaires, ce qui la met au troisième rang mondial des exportateurs derrière les États-Unis et la Russie.” ” In 2001, France sold $1,288 billion of military equipment, ranking 3rd in the world for arms exportations behind the USA and Russia” La France demeure un fournisseur d’armes de premier plan (France stays one of the biggest arms supplier) – L’express. 13 June 2002
  139. Jump up^ “La France est au 4ème rang mondial des exportateurs d’armes, derrière les Etats-Unis, le Royaume-Uni et la Russie, et devant Israël, selon un rapport du ministère de la Défense publié l’an dernier.” “France is 4th biggest arms exportator, behind the USA, the UK and Russia, and ahead of Israel, according to a report of the Ministry of Defense published a year ago” Arms sellings explode in 2009 – 20 minutes
  140. Jump up^ Mail Online, Harrowing loss of Afghanistan troops overshadows France’s Bastille Day military parade, 14 July 2011. [3]. Retrieved 5 January 2012
  141. Jump up^ Bloomberg (2012) French government bond interest rates (graph)
  142. Jump up^ Bloomberg (2012) German government bond interest rates (graph)
  143. Jump up^ “The World Factbook”. CIA. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  144. Jump up^ John, Mark (26 October 2012). “Analysis: Low French borrowing costs risk negative reappraisal”. Reuters. Retrieved 27 November 2012.
  145. Jump up^ EnerPub (8 June 2007). “France: Energy profile”Spero News. Retrieved25 August 2007.
  146. Jump up^ “Global 500 by Country”. CNN. 26 July 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  147. Jump up^ “History of the Euro”. BBC News. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  148. Jump up^ “Entreprises selon le nombre de salariés et l’activité” (in French). INSEE. July 2008.
  149. Jump up^ “Entreprises publiques selon l’activité économique” (in French). INSEE. March 2009.
  150. Jump up^ “International Trade Statistics 2008″World Trade Organization (WTO). 2009. p. 12. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  151. Jump up to:a b “Country fact sheet: France” (PDF). World Investment Report 2009United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  152. Jump up to:a b “Country fact sheet: Japan” (PDF). World Investment Report 2009. UNCTAD. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  153. Jump up^ (French) La Bourse de Paris : une institution depuis 1724
  154. Jump up to:a b Embassy of France. “Embassy of France in Washington: Economy of France”. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  155. Jump up^ “The 10 Largest Banks in the World”. 15 June 2010. Retrieved16 July 2011.
  156. Jump up^ “Greenhouse Gas Emissions”Environmental Indicators. United Nations. August 2009.
  157. Jump up^ “Nuclear shares of electricity generation”. Retrieved1 October 2013.
  158. Jump up^ France – Agriculture – Encyclopedia of the Nations
  159. Jump up^ “Key figures of the French economy”French Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs. France is the world’s fifth largest exporter of goods (mainly durables). The country ranks fourth in services and third in agriculture (especially in cereals and the agri-food sector). It is the leading producer and exporter of farm products in Europe.
  160. Jump up to:a b A panorama of the agriculture and agri-food industries – Ministère de l’Alimentation, de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche
  161. Jump up^ (French) Un ministère au service de votre alimentation – Ministère de l’Alimentation, de l’Agriculture et de la Pêche
  162. Jump up^ “Annex 1: Indicative Figures on the Distribution of Aid, by Size-Class of Aid, Received in the Context of Direct Aid Paid to the Producers According to Council Regulation (EC) No 1782/2003 (Financial Year 2007)” (PDF). European Commission. 22 April 2009. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  163. Jump up^ (French) Les enjeux des industries agroalimentaires françaises – Panorama des Industries Agroalimentaires
  164. Jump up^ “International Comparisons of GDP per Capita, and per Hour, 1960–2011″(PDF). Bureau of Labor Statistics. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
  165. Jump up to:a b Paul Krugman (28 January 2011). “GDP Per Capita, Here and There”The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
  166. Jump up^ “More than 1 million protest French jobs law”. CNN. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  167. Jump up^ “Q&A: French labour law row”. BBC News. 11 April 2006. Retrieved 21 July2011.
  168. Jump up^ “Le Revenu de Solidarité active”. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  169. Jump up^ Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (2012). “OECD Employment Outlook 2012 – Statistical Annex” (PDF). Retrieved 29 June 2013.
  170. Jump up^ Philippe Aghion; Cette, Gilbert; Cohen, Élie; Pisani-Ferry, Jean (2007). Les leviers de la croissance française (PDF) (in French). Paris: Conseil d’analyse économique. p. 55. ISBN 978-2-11-006946-7. Retrieved 1 September 2008.
  171. Jump up^ Steven Erlanger; Maïa de la Baume; Stefania Rousselle (6 December 2012).“Young, Educated and Jobless in France”The New York Times. Retrieved 13 April2014.
  172. Jump up^ “Harmonised unemployment rate by gender – total – % (SA)”. 11 March 2011. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  173. Jump up^ Lucy Mangan (9 April 2014). “When the French clock off at 6pm, they really mean it”The Guardian. Retrieved 13 April 2014.
  174. Jump up^ John Lichfield, The Moving of the Mona Lisa, The Independent, 2005-04-02 (Retrieved 9 March 2012)
  175. Jump up^ Global Attraction Attendance Report, 2012
  176. Jump up^ Dilorenzo, Sarah (20 July 2013). “France learns to welcome, to speak ‘touristeThe Burlington Free Press (Burlington, Vermont). pp. 5A. Retrieved20 July 2013.
  177. Jump up^ “2009 Theme Index. The Global Attractions Attendance Report, 2009″ (PDF). Themed Entertainment Association. Archived from the original on 2 June 2010. Retrieved 7 October 2010.
  178. Jump up^ “The French Riviera Tourist Board”. Retrieved23 January 2011.
  179. Jump up^ Côte d’Azur Economic Development Agency. p. 31[dead link]
  180. Jump up^ Côte d’Azur Economic Development Agency, p. 66[dead link]
  181. Jump up^ “Fréquentation des musées et des bâtiments historiques” (in French).
  182. Jump up^ “Chiffres clés du transport 2010″ (PDF) (in French). Retrieved 7 October2010. – Site officiel du Ministère de l’Écologie, de l’Énergie, du Développement Durable et de la Mer
  183. Jump up^ “Country comparison : railways – The World Factbook”. CIA. Retrieved1 October 2013.
  184. Jump up^ “h2g2 – TGV – The French High-speed Train Service”. BBC. Retrieved 21 July2011.
  185. Jump up^ “Country Comparison : roadways – The World Factbook”. CIA. Retrieved1 October 2013.
  186. Jump up^ (French) L’automobile magazine, hors-série 2003/2004 page 294
  187. Jump up^ “Guide pratique de l’ ADEME, la voiture”. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008.
  188. Jump up^ Bockman, Chris (4 November 2003). “France builds world’s tallest bridge”. BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  189. Jump up^ Strikes block French ports. The Journal of Commerce Online (via BDP International). 23 April 2008
  190. Jump up^ (French) Marseille : un grand port maritime qui ne demande qu’à se montrer – La Provence
  191. Jump up^ “Marseille – A French Pearl in the Mediterranean Sea”. 22 February 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  192. Jump up to:a b INSEE, Government of France. “Évolution générale de la situation démographique, France” (in French). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  193. Jump up^ INSEEGovernment of France“Bilan démographique 2010″ (in French). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  194. Jump up^ INSEE, Government of France. “Tableau 44 – Taux de fécondité générale par âge de la mère” (in French). Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  195. Jump up^ “Naissances selon le pays de naissance des parents 2010″. Retrieved1 October 2013.
  196. Jump up^ Yazid Sabeg et Laurence Méhaignerie, Les oubliés de l’égalité des chances,Institut Montaigne, January 2004
  197. Jump up^ “France’s ethnic minorities: To count or not to count”. The Economist. 26 March 2009. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  198. Jump up^ “TRAJECTORIES AND ORIGINS” Survey on population diversity in France, Insee 2008
  199. Jump up^ Oppenheimer, David B. (2008). “Why France needs to collect data on racial identity…in a French way”Hastings International and Comparative Law Review31 (2): 735–752.
  200. Jump up to:a b Robin Cohen (2 November 1995). The Cambridge Survey of World Migration. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-44405-7.
  201. Jump up^ “France’s crisis of national identity”The Independent (London). 25 November 2009.
  202. Jump up^ “Les personnes d’origine maghrébine y sont également au nombre de 5 à 6 millions; 3,5 millions ont la nationalité française (dont 500 000 harkis)”, Évelyne Perrin, Identité Nationale, Amer Ministère, L’Harmattan, 2010, p. 112ISBN 2-296-10839-3
  203. Jump up^ Falila Gbadamassi. “Les personnes originaires d’Afrique, des Dom-Tom et de la Turquie sont 5,5 millions dans l’Hexagone”. Retrieved 30 September2013.
  204. Jump up^ Richburg, Keith B. (24 April 2005). “Europe’s Minority Politicians in Short Supply”The Washington Post.
  205. Jump up^ Sachs, Susan (12 January 2007). “In officially colorblind France, blacks have a dream – and now a lobby”The Christian Science Monitor (Boston).
  206. Jump up^ “Paris Riots in Perspective”. New York: ABC News. 4 November 2005.
  207. Jump up^ Transactions of the American Philosophical Society. III. French Government and the Refugees“. American Philosophical Society, James E. Hassell (1991). p. 22.ISBN 0-87169-817-X
  208. Jump up^ Markham, James M. (6 April 1988). “For Pieds-Noirs, the Anger Endures”The New York Times.
  209. Jump up^ Raimondo Cagiano De Azevedo (1994). Migration and development co-operation.. p. 25.
  210. Jump up^ Statistiques détaillées sur les flux d’immigration[dead link], Ined, 2011
  211. Jump up^ “UNHCR Global Report 2005: Western Europe” (PDF). UNHCR. 2006. Retrieved14 December 2006.
  212. Jump up^ Être né en France d’un parent immigréInsee Première, n°1287, mars 2010, Catherine Borrel et Bertrand Lhommeau, Insee
  213. Jump up^ Répartition des immigrés par pays de naissance 2008, Insee, October 2011
  214. Jump up^ INSEE (25 January 2005). “Enquêtes annuelles de recensement 2004 et 2005″ (in French). Archived from the original on 12 December 2006. Retrieved 14 December2006.
  215. Jump up^ Swalec, Andrea (6 July 2010). “Turks and Moroccans top list of new EU citizens”. Reuters.
  216. Jump up^ (French) La Constitution- La Constitution du 4 Octobre 1958 – Légifrance
  217. Jump up to:a b Joffre Agnes ls the French obsession with “cultural exception” declining?. France in London. 5 October 2008
  218. Jump up^ “Language and Diplomacy – Translation and Interpretation”. Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 10 September 2010.
  219. Jump up^ “Why Is French Considered the Language of Diplomacy?”. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  220. Jump up^ Rapport Grégoire an II[dead link]
  221. Jump up^ “The International Education Site”. Retrieved 23 January 2011.
  222. Jump up^ “French: one of the world’s main languages”. Retrieved21 July 2011.
  223. Jump up^ (French) Qu’est-ce que la Francophonie ? – Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
  224. Jump up^ The last sacre was that of Charles X, 29 May 1825.
  225. Jump up^ “Observatoire du patrimoine religieux”. 1 February 2012. 94 % des édifices sont catholiques (dont 50 % églises paroissiales, 25 % chapelles, 25 % édifices appartenant au clergé régulier)
  226. Jump up to:a b (French) La France reste catholique mais moins pratiquante – La Croix. 29 December 2009
  227. Jump up^ Robert Marquand (12 July 2012). “In a France suspicious of religion, evangelicalism’s message strikes a chord”. The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 25 April 2013.
  228. Jump up^ “France”Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. Retrieved14 December 2011.
  229. Jump up^ Catholic World News (2003). “France is no longer Catholic, survey shows”. Retrieved 19 December 2009.
  230. Jump up^ (Romanian) Franţa nu mai e o ţară catolicăCotidianul 11 January 2007
  231. Jump up^ La Vie, issue 3209, 1 March 2007 (French)
  232. Jump up^  Sur la religion, les Français restent dubitatifs ” – A la Une”La Croix. France. 14 August 2009. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  233. Jump up^ France to train imams in ‘French Islam’, The Guardian
  234. Jump up^ “France – International Religious Freedom Report 2005″. Retrieved30 October 2010.
  235. Jump up^ “Global Restrictions on Religion. Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life. Washington. 2009″ (PDF). Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  236. Jump up^ Joy of Sects, Sam Jordison, 2006, p. 166
  237. Jump up^ “Commission d’enquête sur les sectes”. Retrieved30 October 2010.
  238. Jump up^ “Society2 ; religion in France ; beliefs ; secularism (laicité)”. Retrieved 20 September 2009.
  239. Jump up^ How to conduct European clinical trials from the Paris Region ? Clinical Trials. Paris. February 2003
  240. Jump up^ “World Health Organization Assesses the World’s Health Systems”. 8 December 2010. Retrieved 6 January 2012.
  241. Jump up^ The ranking, see spreadsheet details for a whole analysis
  242. Jump up^ “Measuring Overall Health System Performance for 191 Countries” (PDF). Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  243. Jump up^ “WHO country facts: France”. Retrieved 11 November 2013.
  244. Jump up^ The World Health Report 2000: WHO
  245. Jump up^ (French) Espérance de vie, taux de mortalité et taux de mortalité infantile dans le mondeEvolution de l’espérance de vie à divers âges – INSEE
  246. Jump up^ (French) Nombre de médecins pour 1000 habitants – Statistiques mondiales
  247. Jump up^ (French) Dépenses de santé par habitants – Statistiques mondiales
  248. Jump up to:a b Even the French are fighting obesity – The NY Times
  249. Jump up to:a b c Wahlgren, Eric (14 November 2009). “France’s obesity crisis: All those croissants really do add up, after all”. Retrieved 21 July2011.
  250. Jump up^ Lambert, Victoria (8 March 2008). “The French children learning to fight obesity”The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  251. Jump up to:a b Why So Few French Are Fat – Bloomberg Businessweek
  252. Jump up^ Mimi Spencer (7 November 2004). “Let them eat cake”The Guardian (London). Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  253. Jump up^ “The French diet : Eat, Drink, and be Thin”. Retrieved9 August 2010.
  254. Jump up to:a b France heading for US obesity levels says study – Food Navigator
  255. Jump up^ “New French food guidelines aimes at tabkling obesity”. 14 September 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  256. Jump up^ Petah Marian (23 May 2008). “France urged to get tough on child obesity”. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  257. Jump up^ “Lycée”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  258. Jump up^ (French) 1881–1882 : Lois Ferry École publique gratuite, laïque et obligatoire. Assemblé Nationale
  259. Jump up^ (French) II. L’évolution du contenu de l’obligation scolaire. Sé
  260. Jump up^ “Range of rank on the PISA 2006 science scale” (PDF). Retrieved 22 July2011.
  261. Jump up^ (French) Les grandes écoles dans la tourmente – Le Figaro
  262. Jump up^ Ministère de la Culture et de la Communication, “Cultura statistics”, Key figures
  263. Jump up^ “Official properties inscribed on the UNESCO World Heritage List in France”. Retrieved 31 December 2012.
  264. Jump up^ “Guide to Impressionism”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  265. Jump up^ (French) RFI, Le néo-impressionnisme de Seurat à Paul Klee 15 March 2005
  266. Jump up^ National Gallery of Art (United States), The Fauves (dossier)
  267. Jump up^ (French) RFI, Vlaminck, version fauve, 25 February 2008
  268. Jump up^ Musée d’Orsay (official website), History of the museum – From station to museum
  269. Jump up^ “History of the painting collection”. 31 July 2007. Retrieved22 July 2011.
  270. Jump up to:a b (French) Ministry of Tourism, Sites touristiques en France page 2 “Palmarès des 30 premiers sites culturels (entrées comptabilisées)” [Ranking of 30 most visited cultural sites in France]
  271. Jump up^ (French) Tour Eiffel et souvenirs de Paris
  272. Jump up^ “Toulouse’s Saint Sernin, Largest Romanesque Church in Europe”. 22 February 1999. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  273. Jump up^ “Opus Francigenum”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  274. Jump up^ “The Gothic Period”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  275. Jump up^ (French) Histoire et Architecture – Site officiel de la Cathedrale de Notre-Dame de Reims
  276. Jump up^ (French) Claude Lébedel – Les Splendeurs du Baroque en France: Histoire et splendeurs du baroque en France page 9: “Si en allant plus loin, on prononce les mots ‘art baroque en France’, on provoque alors le plus souvent une moue interrogative, parfois seulement étonnée, parfois franchement réprobatrice: Mais voyons, l’art baroque n’existe pas en France!”
  277. Jump up^ Hills, Helen (2003). Architecture and the Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe. Ashgate Publishing. p. 86. ISBN 9780754603092.
  278. Jump up^ “Fortifications of Vauban”. 8 July 2008. Retrieved 9 August2010.
  279. Jump up^ “Official site of the UNESCO”. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  280. Jump up^ Paris: City Guide. Lonely Planet. 2008. p. 48. ISBN 1-74059-850-4.
  281. Jump up^ Des gratte-ciel à Paris : qu’en pensez-vous ? – LCI
  282. Jump up^ In the heart of the main European Business area – NCI Business Center
  283. Jump up^ (French) Auteurs et répertoires – Official site of the Comédie Française
  284. Jump up to:a b “Victor Hugo est le plus grand écrivain français” (PDF). Retrieved29 September 2013.
  285. Jump up^ “Montaigne”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  286. Jump up^ “La Princesse de Cleves by Madame de Lafayette, adapted by Jo Clifford”. 28 February 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  287. Jump up^ “Jean de la Fontaine”. Archived from the originalon 18 June 2009. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  288. Jump up^ “Author of some of the finest comedies in the history of the theater.” Hartnoll, Phyllis (ed.). The Oxford Companion to the Theatre, 1983, Oxford University Press, p. 554
  289. Jump up^ Randall, Colin (25 October 2004). “France looks to the law to save the language of Molière”The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  290. Jump up^ (French) Le symbolisme français
  291. Jump up to:a b “Victor Hugo 1802–1885″. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  292. Jump up^ “All-Time 100 Best Novels List”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  293. Jump up^ (French) La première Académie Goncourt – Site officiel de l’Académie Goncourt
  294. Jump up^ “The Little Prince”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  295. Jump up to:a b c Modiano strengthens France’s literature Nobel dominanceGlobal Post, 9 October 2014
  296. Jump up^ “The Beginning of Modern Sciences”. Retrieved 16 July 2011.
  297. Jump up^ William Godwin (1876). “Lives of the Necromancers”. p. 232.
  298. Jump up^ André Thuilier, Histoire de l’université de Paris et de la Sorbonne, Paris, Nouvelle librairie de France, 1994
  299. Jump up^ Burke, Peter, A social history of knowledge: from Gutenberg to Diderot, Malden: Blackwell Publishers Inc., 2000, p.17
  300. Jump up^ Lanzetta M, Petruzzo P, Dubernard JM et al. (Jul 2007). “Second report (1998-2006) of the International Registry of Hand and Composite Tissue Transplantation”. Transpl Immunol. 18 (1): 1–6.doi:10.1016/j.trim.2007.03.002PMID 17584595.
  301. Jump up^ Ghodoussi, Dr. “Media Collection”. Interface Surgical Technologies, LLC. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
  302. Jump up^ Austin, Naomi (2006-10-17). My face transplant saved meBBC News. Retrieved 2007-11-25.
  303. Jump up^ BBC News – Woman has first face transplant
  304. Jump up^ “All Nobel Prizes”. Nobel Media. Retrieved 10 October 2012.
  305. Jump up^ “List of Fields Medallists”. International Mathematical Union. Retrieved10 October 2012.
  306. Jump up^ 2003年4月21日 (月). “The 100 Greatest Artists – No. 62″. Retrieved 25 January 2011.
  307. Jump up^ Girdlestone p. 14: “It is customary to couple him with Couperin as one couples Haydn with Mozart or Ravel with Debussy.”
  308. Jump up^ Claude Debussy – Biography at AllMusic
  309. Jump up^ Huizenga, Tom (14 October 2005). “Debussy’s ‘La Mer’ Marks 100th Birthday”. NPR. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  310. Jump up^ “Debussy’s Musical Game of Deception”. NPR. 12 July 2008. Retrieved 22 July2011.
  311. Jump up^ “Biography of Claude Debussy”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  312. Jump up^ “Biography of Maurice Ravel”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  313. Jump up^ Boulez, Pierre. “Composer-Conductor Pierre Boulez At 85″. NPR. Retrieved22 July 2011.
  314. Jump up^ RFI MusiqueBiography of Noir Désir, March 2009 : “Rock music doesn’t come naturally to the French. A Latin country, with more affinity to poetry and melody, France has very rarely produced talented rock musicians. Rock music has other, more Anglo-Saxon ingredients”
  315. Jump up to:a b c France Diplomatie, French music has the whole planet singing, June 2009
  316. Jump up^ The Telegraph, Daft Punk: Behind the robot masks, 17 November 2007 : “Daft Punk were in many ways responsible for turning the spotlight on a new, cool underground of French music in the late 1990s, including bestselling acts such as Air, and have been a huge influence on the current generation of international star DJs”
  317. Jump up^ “The return of French pop music”. BBC News. 20 December 2001. Retrieved22 July 2011.
  318. Jump up^ Ministry of Culture of France, About « Fête de la Musique »
  319. Jump up^ France Diplomatie, June 2007_9392.html Fête de la Musique, 21 June 2007
  320. Jump up^ Dargis, Manohla. “Cannes International Film Festival”The New York Times.
  321. Jump up^ Lim, Dennis (15 May 2012). “They’ll Always Have Cannes”The New York Times.
  322. Jump up^ Woolsey, Matt. “In Pictures: Chic Cannes Hideaways”Forbes.
  323. Jump up^ (French) Les frères Lumière
  324. Jump up^ Cite error: The named reference NYT_1995-02-28 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  325. Jump up^ “Cinema: production of feature films”. Retrieved22 July 2011.
  326. Jump up^ “Cannes – a festival virgin’s guide”. 15 February 2007. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  327. Jump up^ “Cannes Film Festival | Palais des Festivals, Cannes, France”. Retrieved 22 June 2012.
  328. Jump up to:a b (French) Damien Rousselière Cinéma et diversité culturelle: le cinéma indépendant face à la mondialisation des industries culturellesHorizons philosophiques Vol. 15 No. 2 2005
  329. Jump up^
  330. Jump up^ Joëlle Farchy (1999) La Fin de l’exception culturelle ? CNRS ISBN 978-2-271-05633-7
  331. Jump up^ The cultural exception is not negotiable by Catherine Trautmann – Ministry of Culture
  332. Jump up^ (French) La Convention UNESCO pour la diversité culturelle : vers un droit international culturel contraignant ? –
  333. Jump up^ Kelly, 181. DeJean, chapters 2–4.
  334. Jump up^ “French perfume”. Retrieved 13 January 2014.
  335. Jump up^ Le Figaro (French Newspaper)Encyclopædia Britannica
  336. Jump up^ (French) OJD, “Observatoire de la Presse”, Presse Quotidienne Nationale
  337. Jump up^ (French) OJD, Presse Gratuite d’Information. November 2011
  338. Jump up^ (French) Observatoire de la Presse, Presse Quotidienne Régionale et Départementale
  339. Jump up^ (French) OJD, “Bureau Presse Payante Grand Public”, Presse Quotidienne Régionale et Départementale
  340. Jump up^ (French) Observatoire de la Presse, Presse Magazine – Synthèse
  341. Jump up^ (French) Observatoire de la Presse, Presse News
  342. Jump up^ The TelegraphNicolas Sarkozy: French media faces ‘death’ without reform 2 October 2008
  343. Jump up^ French government portal, Lancement des états généraux de la presse 2 October 2008 [Launching of General State of written media]
  344. Jump up^ Angelique Chrisafis in Paris (23 January 2009). “Sarkozy pledges €600m to newspapers”. London: The Guardian. Retrieved 21 June 2012.
  345. Jump up^ Radio France, “L’entreprise”, Repères. Landmarks of Radio France company
  346. Jump up to:a b (French) Vie Publique, Chronologie de la politique de l’audiovisuel 20 August 2004 [Chronology of policy for audiovisual]
  347. Jump up^ “World warming to US under Obama, BBC poll suggests”. BBC News. 19 April 2010. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  348. Jump up^ “Global Views of United States Improve While Other Countries Decline” (PDF). BBC News. 18 April 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2011.
  349. Jump up^ “Germany on Top, U.S. Seventh in Nation Brands IndexSM”. Retrieved9 August 2010.
  350. Jump up^ “Muslim-Western tensions persist” (PDF). Pew Research Center. Retrieved17 November 2011.
  351. Jump up^ “Opinion of the United States”. Pew Research Center. 2012.
  352. Jump up^ Peter Allen (7 January 2010). “Britain falls to 25th best place to live in the world… behind Lithuania, the Czech Republic and Hungary”Daily Mail(London). Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  353. Jump up to:a b Daniela Deane (11 February 2010). “Why France is best place to live in world”. CNN. Retrieved 1 October 2013.
  354. Jump up^ “The Symbols of the French Republic”Government of France. Retrieved16 January 2014.
  355. Jump up^ (French) French Presidency, “Les symboles de la République française”, Le coq[dead link]
  356. Jump up^ French rural code L654-27-1[dead link]
  357. Jump up^ Amy B. Trubek, Haute Cuisine: How the French Invented the Culinary Profession[4]
  358. Jump up^ Priscilla Parkhurst Ferguson, Accounting for Taste: The Triumph of French Cuisine [5]
  359. Jump up^ (French) La France du beurre et celle de l’huile d’olive maintiennent leurs positions – Agence France Presse
  360. Jump up^ “Wines of France”. University of Texas. Archived from the original on 11 February 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  361. Jump up^ “French Cheese”. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  362. Jump up^ French Cheese on Traditional French Food
  363. Jump up^ Fairburn, Carolyn. “Fading stars – Michelin Red Guide”The Times, 29 February 1992; Beale, Victoria and James Boxell “Falling stars”The Financial Times, 16 July 2011
  364. Jump up^ “Michelin 3 Star Restaurants around the world”. 14 December 2006. Retrieved 30 October 2010.
  365. Jump up^ Japan overtakes France with more Michelin-starred restaurants, Gilles Campion | Agence France-Presse | Thu 25 November 2010
  366. Jump up^ “Union Cycliste Internationale”.
  367. Jump up^ (French) Les licences sportives en France – Insee
  368. Jump up^ “All you need to know about sport in France”. Retrieved 11 February 2012.
  369. Jump up^ “History of the World Cup Final Draw” (PDF). Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  370. Jump up^ France wins right to host the 2007 rugby world cup. Associated Press. 11 April 2003
  371. Jump up^ “The Tour De France: The Most Famous Bicycle Race In The World”. 3 January 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2011.
  372. Jump up^ “Cycling: Tour de France”. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
  373. Jump up^ (French) Une course légendaire[dead link] – Site officiel du 24 heures du Mans
  374. Jump up^ Hill, Christopher R. (1996). Olympic Politics. Manchester University Press ND. p. 5. ISBN 0-7190-4451-0. Retrieved 5 July 2011.
  375. Jump up to:a b c Olympic History – World Atlas of Travel
  376. Jump up^ “Paris 1900 Summer Olympics. Official Site of the Olympic Movement”. Retrieved 30 September 2013.
  377. Jump up^ Lausanne, olympic capital[dead link] – Tourism in Lausanne
  378. Jump up^ “Licenses of the French Football Federation” (PDF). Retrieved 13 January2014.
  379. Jump up^ “CNN/SI – World Cup”Sports Illustrated. 1 December 1998. Retrieved 22 July2011.
  380. Jump up^ Stevenson, Jonathan (9 July 2006). “Zidane off as Italy win World Cup”. BBC News. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
  381. Jump up^ 1984: Platini shines for flamboyant France[dead link]. UEFA
  382. Jump up^ 2000: Trezeguet strikes gold for France[dead link]. UEFA
  383. Jump up^ “Thierry Henry calls end to France career”. BBC Sport. Retrieved 29 October 2014
  384. Jump up^ Rugby. 123 Voyage

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